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Review questions from yesterday! PowerPoint Presentation
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Review questions from yesterday!

Review questions from yesterday!

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Review questions from yesterday!

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  1. Review questions from yesterday!

  2. ________________________ disorder is a type of anxiety disorder. It can occur after you've seen or experienced an event that involved the threat of injury or death.

  3. ________________________ disorder is a type of anxiety disorder. It can occur after you've seen or experienced an event that involved the threat of injury or death. mood bipolar PTSD

  4. True or False? • Hauff and Vaglum (1994) Twin research has shown there is no genetic predisposition for PTSD.

  5. Hauff and Vaglum (1994) Twin research has shown there is no genetic predisposition for PTSD. True False

  6. True or False? • Geracioti (2001) found that PTSD patients had lower levels of noradrenaline than the average.

  7. Geracioti (2001) found that PTSD patients had lower levels of noradrenaline than the average. True False

  8. True or False? • Having good social support helps to protect against PTSD.

  9. Having good social support helps to protect against PTSD. True False

  10. Which event would NOT cause PTSD? • Warfare • Assault • prom • Domestic abuse

  11. Which event would NOT cause PTSD? Domestic abuse Assault Warfare Prom

  12. True or False? • Brewin et al. (1996) argue that the flashbacks occurs as a result of cue-dependent memory, where stimuli similar to the original traumatic event may trigger sensory and emotional aspects of the memory, thus causing panic.

  13. Brewin et al. (1996) argue that the flashbacks occurs as a result of cue-dependent memory, where stimuli similar to the original traumatic event may trigger sensory and emotional aspects of the memory, thus causing panic. True False

  14. True or False? • Sutker et at. (1995) found that Vietnam War veterans who had a sense of purpose and commitment to the military had less chance of suffering from PTSD than other veterans.

  15. Sutker et at. (1995) found that Vietnam War veterans who had a sense of purpose and commitment to the military had less chance of suffering from PTSD than other veterans. True False

  16. True or False? • Silva (2000) children may develop PTSD by observing their parents argue.

  17. Silva (2000) children may develop PTSD by observing their parents argue. True False

  18. True or False? • Horowitz et al. (1995) reviewed a number of studies and found that women have a risk up to 5 times greater than males to develop PTSD after a violent or traumatic event.

  19. Horowitz et al. (1995) reviewed a number of studies and found that women have a risk up to 5 times greater than males to develop PTSD after a violent or traumatic event. True False

  20. True or False? • Natural disasters carry the highest risks for producing PTSD.

  21. Natural disasters carry the highest risks for producing PTSD. True False

  22. Abnormal Psychology:psychological disorders Part III

  23. Eating Disorders: Bulimia • According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), between 2-3% of women and .02-.03% of men have been diagnosed with bulimia. • According to Frude (1998) the female:male ratio of bulimia sufferers is approximately 10:1. binge eating is the most common eating disorder and it affects around 2% of all adults. Similar prevalence rates have been found in Japan and some European countries.

  24. Eating Disorders: Bulimia • More than 5 million individuals are believed to experience an eating disorder (bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa) in the USA alone. • Keel et al. (2006) reported that up to 40% of college women experienced symptoms of bulimia, such as isolated episode of binge eating and purging. • The onset age of bulimia typically occurs in the late teens or early twenties.

  25. Eating Disorders: Bulimia • Eating disorders are believed to be more common in industrialized countries, but appropriate studies have not been conducted in developing countries.

  26. Eating Disorders: Bulimia • Individuals with bulimia nervosa undertake binge eating and then use compensatory methods to prevent weight gain, such as induced vomiting, excessive exercise, or laxative abuse. • In order for a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa to be made, the binge eating and compensatory behaviors must occur, on average, at least twice a week for three months.

  27. Eating Disorders: Bulimia • Bulimic patients may consume more in a binge than an average person eats in a day. Patients report that when they begin to binge they have feelings of disgust and guilt. Psychologists call this ego-dystonic behavior – that is, the patient experiences the symptoms as something distressing that he or she is unable to control. • For a person obsessed with the idea of not becoming fat, a binge episode is likely to produce panic and intense regret. Some argue that vomiting can be effective in reversing these feelings.

  28. Eating Disorders: Bulimia • Bulimic patients are afraid of weight gain, and their self-esteem depends on maintaining a certain weight. • They tend to be highly dissatisfied and have a distorted sense of their own body. • Often because patients see that their behavior causes stress for family and friends, they feel a sense of shame. • They may also experience shame regarding the waste of food. • The combination of low self-esteem and guilt leads many to suffer from depression.

  29. Eating Disorders: Bulimia • Most bulimics have an average BMI, so there are no identifiable symptoms of the disorder. • Repeated vomiting causes swollen salivary glands or erosion of tooth enamel, with or without cavities. • The loss of stomach acid (which is high in potassium) through vomiting cause electrolyte imbalances that can cause problems for the heart, kidneys, and intestines. Extreme loss of potassium can eventually lead to heart failure.

  30. Symptoms of bulimia nervosa • Affective: feelings of inadequacy, guilt, or shame. • Behavioral: recurrent episodes of binge eating; use of vomiting, laxatives, exercise, or dieting to control weight. • Cognitive: negative self-image; poor body image; tendency to perceive events as more stressful than most people would; perfectionism. • Somatic: swollen salivary glands; erosion of tooth enamel; stomach or intestinal problems and, in extreme cases, heart problems.

  31. Etiology of bulimia nervosa:Biological level of analysis • Kendler et al. (1991) studied 2000 female twins and found the same trait of bulimia in 23% of MZ twins and 9% in DZ twins. • Strober (2000) found that first-degree relatives of women with bulimia nervosa are 10 times more likely than average to develop the disorder.

  32. Etiology of bulimia nervosa:Biological level of analysis • Serotonin also appears to play a role in bulimia. Increased serotonin levels stimulate the medial hypothalamus and decrease food intake. • Carraso (2000) found lower levels of serotonin in bulimic patients. • Smith et al. (1990) found that when serotonin levels were reduced in recovered bulimic patients, they engages in cognitive patterns related to eating disorders, such as feeling fat.

  33. Etiology of bulimia nervosa:Cognitive explanations • According to the body-image distortion hypothesis (Bruch, 1962), many eating disorder patients suffer from the delusion that they are fat, and that they overestimate their body size. • Slade and Brodie (1994) suggest that those who suffer from an eating disorder are in fact uncertain about the size and shape of their own body, and that when they are compelled to make a judgment they often overestimate their body size.

  34. Etiology of bulimia nervosa:Cognitive explanations • Rozin and Fallon (1985) compared males’ and females’ responses to questions dealing solely with body image. Participants answered questions concerning their current figure, their ideal figure, the figure they thought would be most attractive to the opposite sex, and the figure they found most attractive of the opposite sex. Fallon and Rozin found that generally, women are less satisfied with their bodies than men. Men’s current, ideal, and attractive ratings were more similar, whereas, there was a significant difference among the same comparison data of women. These findings run parallel to the fact that more females than males are diagnosed with eating disorders (DSM-IV, 2000).

  35. Etiology of bulimia nervosa:Cognitive explanations • Polivy and Herman (1985) proposed that dieting causes binge eating. Dieters rely heavily on cognitive factors rather than physiological cues to maintain control over their eating behavior. Laboratory research has consistently shown that restrained eaters can maintain their strict dietary guidelines and avoid overeating when demands of the study are low and allow them to follow their diet; however, when restrained eaters must consume a high-calorie pre-load (i.e., a milkshake) prior to a laboratory “taste test,” they overeat or even binge. P • Polivy and Herman (1985) assert that these episodes of overeating appear to be due to a violation of the strict dietary rules of the restrained eater. “all or nothing approach.” • Non-restrained eaters, on the other hand, show a more normal eating pattern under laboratory conditions. They eat more in the “taste test” if there is no high-calorie pre-load but less when there is one. S

  36. NOW THEN

  37. Etiology of bulimia nervosa:Sociocultural level of analysis • The current media ideal of thinness is achievable by less than 5% of the female population. • Women are much more likely than men or children to be the target for the media propaganda that promotes thinness.

  38. Etiology of bulimia nervosa:Sociocultural level of analysis • Sanders and Bazalgette (1993) analyzed the body shape of three of the most popular dolls available for young girls (Barbie, Sindy, and the Little Mermaid). Measuring their height, hips, waist, and bust. They then transformed those measurements to apply to a woman of average height and found that, relative to women, the dolls all had tiny hips and waists, and greatly exaggerated inside leg measurements.

  39. Etiology of bulimia nervosa:Sociocultural level of analysis • Studies indicate that by the age of 12, body shape can be a major criterion in self-evaluation and the evaluation of others. There are numerous sources of social pressure that push even young children towards being thin.

  40. Etiology of bulimia nervosa:Sociocultural level of analysis • More and more men are feeling the pressure to be thin and look good, according to the American Dietetic Association Food and Nutrition Conference."Males are taking on our unhealthy obsession with thinness and perfection, and as a result we are seeing an increased incidence in eating disorders in males" says Sondra Kronberg. • According to the National Eating Disorders Association, there are about 1 million men with serious eating disorders and tens of millions who have some form of eating disorders. • "From a very young age, boys are surrounded with media messages of what they should look like," Kronberg says. "Action figures present subtle messages of unrealistic role models of well-sculpted, heavily muscled, 'perfect' bodies that little boys see as their role models." Popular culture plays a role in new male attitudes, Kronberg says. "It is due in part to our culture that values the beautiful, thin, and perfect physical exterior instead of what is on the inside. The cultural message suggests that if you don't like your body or face, you can fix it and bigger is better.“ • At any given time, 25 percent of men are on diets and 41 percent are dissatisfied with their weight.

  41. Jaeger et al. (2002)Cross-cultural differences in body dissatisfaction • It is widely accepted that risk factors for bulimia nervosa, mainly body dissatisfaction, are dependent on cultural factors. • A series of 10 silhouettes, designed to be as far as possible free from cultural and other detailed aspects, was shown to 1,751 medical and nursing students in 12 nations. • The most extreme body dissatisfaction was found in northern Mediterranean countries, followed by northern European countries. Countries currently undergoing a process of westernization show an intermediate amount of body dissatisfaction, and non-western countries demonstrate rather low values. • Body dissatisfaction is the most important influence on dieting behavior in most countries. There are remarkable differences in body dissatisfaction between different cultures. That body dissatisfaction seems disturbingly partly detached from the actual BMI.

  42. True or False? • Polivy and Herman (1985) proposed that dieting does not cause binge eating.

  43. Polivy and Herman (1985) proposed that dieting does not cause binge eating. True False

  44. The current media ideal of thinness is achievable by less than __________%of the female population.

  45. The current media ideal of thinness is achievable by less than _____%of the female population. 2% 5% 8%

  46. The onset age of bulimia typically occurs in the ________________________

  47. The onset age of bulimia typically occurs in the ________________________ Late twenties or early thirties Late thirties or early fifties Late teens or early twenties

  48. According to the National Eating Disorders Association, there are about 1 _______ men with serious eating disorders

  49. According to the National Eating Disorders Association, there are about 1 _______ men with serious eating disorders million trillion billion

  50. True or False? • Eating disorders are believed to be more common in industrialized countries.