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Aircraft Performance

Aircraft Performance

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Aircraft Performance

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Aircraft Performance

  2. Airplane Performance Results • Upper wing ice Photo courtesy of NASA

  3. Airplane Performance Calculations • Acceleration and takeoff roll were normal • Airplane had proper airspeed • Airplane had proper pitch at liftoff • Airplane stalled • Loss of roll control

  4. Airplane Performance Calculations • Clean airplane should have climbed • Accident airplane failed to climb • Experienced several roll excursions • Localized aerodynamic stall • Indicative of surface contamination

  5. Effects of Surface Contamination • Reduces maximum lift generated by wing • Reductions of lift up to 30% are possible

  6. Clean Wing Stick Pusher Stall Stick Shaker Lift Normal takeoff Angle of Attack

  7. Effect of Surface Contamination Stick Pusher Stick Shaker Stall Lift Loss Lift Normal takeoff Angle of Attack

  8. Bombardier Challenger Birmingham, England – January 4, 2002 • Airplane rolled left despite full right aileron and rudder input • AAIB finding: Roll was due to stall caused by frost contamination

  9. Ground Icing

  10. Ground Icing Photo courtesy of NASA

  11. Ground Icing Small, almost imperceptible accumulations Photos from Chaput, M., Hanna M., Ruggi E., and Mayhew, J. Aircraft Full-Scale Test Program for the 1998/99 Winter, APS Aviation, Inc., Montreal, October 1999, Transportation Development Centre TP 13485E

  12. Ground Icing

  13. NTSB Alert to Pilots: Upper Wing Surface Ice Accumulation • Issued December 29, 2004 • Reiterated findings from research and ground-icing investigations • Fine particles of frost or ice the size of a grain of table salt and distributed as sparsely as one per square centimeter can destroy enough lift to prevent an airplane from taking off

  14. Airplane Performance • Aerodynamically clean airplane should have lifted off • Airplane motion indicates contamination present on wings • Past investigations have demonstrated small amounts of contamination can be deadly