Take Five… • Complete the Skill Builder questions on pg 415
Landforms of The African Continent • Plateau over most of the continent • 1,000 feet above sea level • “plateau continent” • Water Basins (depressions) • 625 miles wide • 5,000 feet deep • Ex: Chad, Sudan, Congo, & Djouf Basins • Rivers • Nile=Longest river in the world • 4,000 miles • Provides Irrigation waters • 95% of water resource for Egypt
Valleys, Mountains, & Lakes (Oh My…) • Rift Valleys—caused by continental separation • Lake Tanganyika—longest freshwater lake in the world • Lake Victoria—world’s 2nd largest freshwater lake • Volcanic mountains • Mount Kenya • Mount Kilimanjaro--Africa’s Highest Mtn. • Escarpment—steep slope with plateau on top • The Great Escarpment in Southern Africa
Wally Points… • What is the problem associated with rift valleys in Africa?
Africa’s Natural Resources • Rich mineral resources • Gold (30% of world’s resources); Platinum (80%) Cobalt; Copper; Diamonds; Chromium (used in production of stainless steel) • Oil—Libya, Nigeria, Algeria (world’s leading petroleum countries); Angola & Gabon also rich in oil resources • Is not rich in economic development • Exploited by European imperialist countries • Africa slow to develop infrastructure and industries
Take Five… • What do African countries, such as Angola spend the oil money on?
In class assignment…pg 419 • Complete the Economic Map Activity on pg 419
In class assignment • Read Chp 18 Section 3 and make a list of pros and cons for the building of the Aswan Dam • Then, write a paragraph either defending or supporting the Dam
African Climate and Vegetation • Deserts • Kalahari • Namib • Sahara=largest desert in the world • 3,000 miles • Temperatures over 100 during the day and freezing at night • Only 2 million Africans live here • Aquifers=underground water resources • Oasis • Tropics of Africa? • 90% of continent lies between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn
Take Five… • From the youtube video—how did the Bushmen survive without a lot of rainfall? Where did they live?
Rainfall in Africa • Mediterranean climates in Northern and Southern Africa • Rainfall N =(Dec & Jan) & S = (June & July) • East Africa • Periodic droughts • Central Africa • Rainforest=throughout the year • ½ of Africa is the tropical savannah w/ 2 rainy seasons each year • Western Africa • Adequate rainfall
Vegetation • Tropical grasslands cover the majority of African landscapes • Serengeti Plain • Rainforest in the Central regions of Africa • Congo Basin • Variety of plant and animal life • Canopy • Problems with slash/burn techniques • ½ of original rainforest destroyed
Human-Environment Interaction • Desertification of the Sahel • Causes • Overgrazing of livestock • Farming and increased soil erosion • Wind erosion • Drilling for water leads to increased levels of salt which prevents growth • Increased population • Effects • Destroying forests and rainforests
Human-Environment Interaction • Oil Resources in Nigeria • World’s 6th largest oil exporter • Nigeria borrowed money against oil profits for internal improvements • Oil prices dropped leaving Nigeria in debt to foreign countries
Effects of Nigerian Oil Industry • Mismanagement of money, corruption of government officials and decline of oil prices has injured the Nigerian economy • 400+ oil spills • Bandits sabotaging oil pipelines with consent of the government • New leadership-President Olusegun Obasanjo (1999) pledged to fire corrupt government employees and clean up corruption and mismanagement
Controlling the Nile River • Periods of drought/flooding • Flooding provided silt for fertile soils along the banks of the Nile—but also destroyed homes/farms etc • Egyptians tried canals and dams to stop the environmental problem • Aswan High Dam (1970) • Created Lake Nasser—300 mile lake • Regulates water flow to farming regions
Problems associated with the Aswan Dam • Relocation of Nubian population • Relocation of artifacts from the Temple Abu Simbel • Destruction of some Egyptian artifacts • Decreased fertility without seasonal floods • Drains installed to flush out the salt deposits which would have naturally been removed with seasonal flooding • Increased in mosquito born diseases (malaria) • Evaporation of Lake Nasser
In Class Assignment… • Make a chart of the 5 different regions of Africa include: primary climate of the region, countries in the region, imperialistic nations taking over the region, government of the region and major natural resources of the region.
Take Five… • Complete the Skill Builder Questions on pg 431
Chp 19: From Human Beginnings to New Nations • East Africa • North Africa • West Africa • Central Africa • Southern Africa
East Africa • “cradle of humanity” • Evidence of humanoids from 2 mill years ago • Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, and Uganda
East African Trade • 100s AD-Trade along the Red Sea & Indian Ocean-Aksum (Ethiopia) • Center for Christianity • Taking advantage of Monsoon winds • 600s AD-Kilwa (Tanzania) emerges as a new trading center with middle east • East Africa= cultural crossroads
Colonization and Imperialism • Europe interested in rich natural resources • Berlin Conference 1884-1885 • Dividing Africa among European rulers • African chiefs were not invited • European country must illustrate and maintain control in a region • Division without regard to cultural, ethnical or any other African considerations
Colonization… • By 1914 only Liberia & Ethiopia was free from European control • U.S. in Liberia • Ethiopia defeated the Italians in 1896
Take Five… • What happens to African countries, after receiving their independence from European countries? Ex?
Problems associated with ending colonization • Political instability • Economic hardship • Ethnical disputes • Ex: Rwanda’s Civil War in 1990
East African Economies • Farming • 70% rural • Cash crops: coffee, tea, sugar • Dependent on world market • Tourism • Wildlife parks • Game reserves