Name That Disorder Help students apply information about disorders to case studies after they've read the information in the textbook
Defining Psychological Disorders Mental health workers view psychological disorders as persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions. When behavior is deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional psychiatrists and psychologists label it as disordered (Comer, 2004).
Classifying Psychological Disorders The American Psychiatric Association rendered a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) to describe psychological disorders. The most recent edition, DSM-IV-TR (Text Revision, 2000), describes 400 psychological disorders compared to 60 in the 1950s.
Multiaxial Classification Axis I Is a Clinical Syndrome (cognitive, anxiety, mood disorders [16 syndromes]) present? Axis II Is a Personality Disorder or Mental Retardation present? Axis III Is a General Medical Condition (diabetes, hypertension or arthritis etc) also present? Axis IV Are Psychosocial or Environmental Problems (school or housing issues) also present? Axis V What is the Global Assessment of the person’s functioning?
Goals of DSM • Describe (400) disorders. • Determine how prevalent the disorder is. Disorders outlined by DSM-IV are reliable. Therefore, diagnoses by different professionals are similar. Others criticize DSM-IV for “putting any kind of behavior within the compass of psychiatry.”
Ryan’s social phobia has led him to lose jobs and relationships. In this case, Ryan has a disorder because his behavior is: • A. dangerous. • B. common. • C. medically based. • D. dysfunctional.
The DSM-IV is a diagnostic guide that: A. describes psychological disorders and their prevalence. B. describes psychological disorders and their causes. C. describes only disorders that have medical causes. D. has been shown to have poor reliability and validity.
Anxiety Disorders Feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety. • Generalized anxiety disorder • Panic disorder • Phobias • Obsessive-compulsive disorder • Post-traumatic stress disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Persistent and uncontrollable tenseness and apprehension. Symptoms 2. Autonomic arousal. 3. Inability to identify or avoid the cause of certain feelings.
Panic Disorder Minutes-long episodes of intense dread which may include feelings of terror, chest pains, choking, or other frightening sensations. Symptoms Anxiety is a component of both disorders. It occurs more in the panic disorder, making people avoid situations that cause it.
Phobias Marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that disrupts behavior.
Kinds of Phobias Agoraphobia Phobia of open places. Acrophobia Phobia of heights. Claustrophobia Phobia of closed spaces. Hemophobia Phobia of blood.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Persistence of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions) that cause distress.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Four or more weeks of the following symptoms constitute post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): • Haunting memories 2. Nightmares 3. Social withdrawal 4. Jumpy anxiety 5. Sleep problems Bettmann/ Corbis
Personality Disorders Personality disorders are characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning. They are usually without anxiety, depression, or delusions.
Mood Disorders Emotional extremes of mood disorders come in two principal forms. • Major depressive disorder • Bipolar disorder
Major Depressive Disorder Depression is the “common cold” of psychological disorders. In a year, 5.8% of men and 9.5% of women report depression worldwide (WHO, 2002). Blue mood Major Depressive Disorder Gasping for air after a hard run Chronic shortness of breath
Major Depressive Disorder Major depressive disorder occurs when signs of depression last two weeks or more and are not caused by drugs or medical conditions. Signs include: • Lethargy and fatigue • Feelings of worthlessness • Loss of interest in family & friends • Loss of interest in activities
Bipolar Disorder Formerly called manic-depressive disorder. An alternation between depression and mania signals bipolar disorder. Depressive Symptoms Manic Symptoms Gloomy Elation Withdrawn Euphoria Inability to make decisions Desire for action Tired Hyperactive Slowness of thought Multiple ideas
Schizophrenia The literal translation is “split mind” which refers to a split from reality. A group of severe disorders characterized by the following: Disorganized and delusional thinking. Disturbed perceptions. Inappropriate emotions and actions.
Symptoms of Schizophrenia Positive symptoms: the presence of inappropriate behaviors (hallucinations, disorganized or delusional talking) Negative symptoms: the absence of appropriate behaviors (expressionless faces, rigid bodies)
Disorganized & Delusional Thinking This morning when I was at Hillside [Hospital], I was making a movie. I was surrounded by movie stars … I’m Mary Poppins. Is this room painted blue to get me upset? My grandmother died four weeks after my eighteenth birthday.” (Sheehan, 1982) Other forms of delusions include, delusions of persecution (“someone is following me”) or grandeur (“I am a king”). This monologue illustrates fragmented, bizarre thinking with distorted beliefs called delusions (“I’m Mary Poppins”).
Disturbed Perceptions A schizophrenic person may perceive things that are not there (hallucinations). Frequently such hallucinations are auditory and lesser visual, somatosensory, olfactory, or gustatory. L. Berthold, Untitled. The Prinzhorn Collection, University of Heidelberg August Natter, Witches Head. The Prinzhorn Collection, University of Heidelberg Photos of paintings by Krannert Museum, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Inappropriate Emotions & Actions A schizophrenic person may laugh at the news of someone dying or show no emotion at all (flat affect). Patients with schizophrenia may continually rub an arm, rock a chair, or remain motionless for hours (catatonia).
Irene occasionally experiences unpredictable episodes of intense dread, accompanied by chest pains and a sensation of smothering. Her symptoms have no apparent physical cause. Irene suffers from: • Obsessive-compulsive disorder • Panic disorder • Agoraphobia • Post-traumatic stress disorder • Antisocial personality disorder
Jason is so preoccupied with staying clean that he showers as many as 10 times each day. Jason suffers from: • Obsessive-compulsive disorder • Panic disorder • Agoraphobia • Bipolar Disorder • Paranoid Schizophrenia
One day Matt felt optimistic, energetic, and on top of the world. A few days later he felt hopeless and lethargic. He thought that the future looked very grim. Matt suffers from: • Major Depression • Panic disorder • Agoraphobia • Bipolar Disorder • Paranoid Schizophrenia
Claiming that she heard a voice commanding her to warn other people that eating is harmful, Sandy attempts to convince others restaurant patrons not to eat. The psychiatrist to whom she is referred finds that Sandy’s thinking and speech are often fragmented and incoherent. In addition, Sandy has an unreasonable fear that someone is “out to get her.” Consequently, she trusts no one. Sandy suffers from: • Major Depression • Panic disorder • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder • Bipolar Disorder • Paranoid Schizophrenia
Bob has never been able to keep a job. He’s been in and out of jail for charges such as theft, sexual assault, and spousal abuse. Bob suffers from: • Major Depression • Obsessive-compulsive Disorder • Antisocial Personality Disorder • Bipolar Disorder • Paranoid Schizophrenia
For the last month Gabrielle has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in the morning. She has withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and unlovable. Gabrielle suffers from: • Major Depression • Obsessive-compulsive Disorder • Antisocial Personality Disorder • Bipolar Disorder • Paranoid Schizophrenia
Consider This… • How do we define “abnormal behavior”? • Why are personality disorders different from the other “common” psychological disorders? • Can you truly make a diagnoses based on short descriptions such as these?