OGT Question of the Day! Make sure you write down the entire question and your answer. After we go over it as a class make sure you have the correct response. This will be a grade at the end of each 9 weeks. You are responsible for any questions you miss due to absences.
T-method/T-square Method • To answer a 2 pt extended response use the “T-Method” • Write the action verb on the line. • To answer a 4 pt extended response use the t-square method. • Write the action verb in the top of each square. Describe Describe List List Describe Describe
OGT Performance Verbs • • Analyze: Consider the different parts of a problem, situation, or equation in order to determine the nature of the whole. Taking something apart to look at its component parts • • Compare: Examination of similarities and/or differences. Compare implies looking at only similaritieswhile compare and contrast implies looking at similarities and differences. 10th grade students should know the difference between point by point comparison or block comparison and should be able to write in either style. • • Describe: Give as many details as possible. If the question involves an object or a place, all five senses should be utilized. If the question involves a person or a story, dialogue or conversation may be necessary. If the question involves a person only, an anecdote may be helpful. A web or a list of details created before writing is a good way to ensure that the student provides enough description. • • Evaluate: The student uses given criteria or comes up with his/her own criteria to judge the role or value of something. This might include explaining the pros and cons and/or consequences of a decision or action. It might ask for a value judgment on a piece of literature or a decision made by a person in history. • • Explain: The student is asked to give reasons for something. It might be to clarify the function of something, to identify causes for events or relationships, or it might be to examine factors leading up to an incident or a result.
OGT Performance Verbs cont. • • Formulate: The student is asked to come up with a new concept, theory, or hypothesis. This is to be done based on information, trends, patterns, observations, etc. An example could be devising a category to classify seemingly dissimilar events. • • Infer: Students are asked to provide an answer that is not explicitly named or stated in the question or the text. This is done by predicting events or extracting data from a given set of facts. • • Predict: The student is asked to use knowledge already provided in a piece of reading or in a chart or graph in order to make a statement about what will happen next. For instance, if a component in a process is changed, what will be the consequences? • • Summarize: Condense the information given in a piece of reading or on a chart or graph into a smaller piece of writing, for instance several paragraphs summarized in one paragraph or one paragraph summarized in one sentence. When asking students to summarize, they should be directed to look at the topic sentences in a piece of writing. • • Support: Use information from text or charts or graphs to give evidence for a conclusion or argument. Support is more than just the student's opinion. It should be facts, details, or quotations from what has been read or observed. • • Trace: Describe a path or sequence of events or give an accurate chronology
List some causes of weather. • Solar energy (heats air and land) • Elevation (temperature falls with increased elevation) • Nearness to large bodies of water (humidity and temperature affected) • Temperature (determines how much water vapor air can hold) • Air Pressure (produces wind and air mass patterns).
2,6,1,5,4,8,3,7 • Organize the following steps to scientifically solve a problem. • Develop a hypothesis. • Ask a question based on observations. • Draw Conclusions. • Test hypothesis. • Plan test with materials and methods. • Do background research. • Report Findings • Record and analyze data 3 1 7 5 4 2 8 6
The individuals listed below played a role n the development of evolutionary theory. Match them with their concept. • The Earth is very old, and it was formed by gradual processes that still operate today. • Events during an organisms lifetime can produce changes that can be inherited by its offspring. • The human population was growing so rapidly that it would someday exceed available resources. • Organisms that are best adapted to their environment survive to reproduce. • Offspring can resemble or differ from parents because of the “unit of inheritance” (gene). • Charles Darwin • Jean Baptiste Lamark • Charles Lyell • Thomas Malthus • Gregor Mendel
Evidence gathered by paying close attention. Observations are based on fact – events that you see or hear, or measurements that you make. Define Observation Define Inference Uses evidence to draw a conclusion. Inferences are logical guesses that use facts to back them up. Is each event below an observation or inference? • When baking soda and vinegar are combined, the mixture foams. • A chemical reaction must be taken place when baking soda and vinegar are combined. • The ducks arrived at the Wilsons’ pond two weeks earlier this spring than last spring. • The leaves are falling earlier since the weather has been so cold. • The dog must have frightened the rabbit. It ran into a bush. Observation Inference Observation Inference Inference
Fossils are the actual remains or traces of organisms that once lived. • What are fossils? • In what kind of rock are most fossils found? • How does the arrangement of fossils in rock strata provide evidence that evolution has occurred? Fossils are usually found in strata (layers) of sedimentary rock. Fossils in the oldest layers are of simpler organisms than the fossils in the newer layer. Fossils in the newer layer are more like present organisms.
What is Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation? • Compare your weight on the surface of the Earth to your weight on the surface of the moon. Between any two objects in the universe there is gravity. The bigger the object is, the more gravity it has. Your weight on the moon will be about 1/16 of your weight on the Earth. So if you weight 100 lbs. on Earth you would weigh 6.25 lbs.
FACTS ABOUT CELLS? • What are the 6 most common chemical elements found in cells? • What is the source of new cells? • Are viruses cells? Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous, sulfur All new cells come from existing cells. NO
Environmental Issue! What is the Ozone layer and why is it important? The ozone is a layer in the stratosphere that absorbs ultraviolet rays from the sun, keeping most of the life harming rays from reaching the Earth’s surface. Why are there “holes” in the ozone layer over the South Pole? Chloroflourocarbons (CFC’s) once used in refrigerators, air conditioners, and aerosols were released into the atmosphere. These chemicals decreased the amount of ozone, which created a hole (especially over Antarctica where the ozone tends to be naturally thin. What is being done about CFC’s? In 1986 International Congress in Montreal produced a treaty to reduce and then ban CFC production by 1996.
Tell whether each statement is Mitosis or Meiosis? • Haploid Daughter cells. • Daughter cells are identical. • Homologous chromosomes for tetrands. • Two consecutive cell divisions. • Chromosome number is maintained • Produces genetic variation. Meiosis Mitosis Meiosis Meiosis Mitosis Meiosis
Define Radioactivity. Give one beneficial use of radioactivity. • Radioactivity is the spontaneous release of energy by certain atoms, such as uranium, as these atoms disintegrate. • Radioactivity helps doctors to see the development of cancer by using a radioactive liquid to highlight masses in the body.
Limiting factors keep populations from growing forever. In which of the following situations does the population decline because of a density-independent limiting factor? In which is the decline due to a density-dependent limiting factor? • About 10,000 sea lions live on an island in the Arctic Ocean. Most of them die when a volcano erupts on the island. • A herd of antelope lives on a prairie between two mountain ranges. As the population continues to grow, many antelope die from starvation. density-independent limiting factor: the population decline is caused by an environmental factor unrelated to the size of the population. density-dependent limiting factor: population growth declines as the density of the antelope population increases. The availability of food is directly related to the size of the population.
What is the name of the scale that measures the strength of acids and bases? pH scale What would be the pH of an acid, a base, and a neutral substance? Acid – below 7 on the pH scale (lemon juice, tomatoes, vinegars, fruits.) Base – above 7 on the pH scale (baking soda, soap, ammonia Neutral 7 (pure distilled water) Give examples of substances or situations where you may test for acids and bases. Fish tanks, swimming pools
Describe ways of estimating geologic time. • Radiometric dating:a technique based on the half-life or radioactive isotopes that is used to determine the age of materials. • Rock sequencing: analyzing the order of rock strata to estimate their relative ages; Rocks lower in the order tend to be older than those near the top. • Fossils:remains or traces of prehistoric organisms that are often formed when cell structures of buried organisms are replaced by minerals.
A wave is a traveling disturbance that transfers energy from one place to another. • Define a wave. • Name some types of waves. • Why type of wave does not need matter to travel? Sound, electromagnetic, seismic, water, and light waves. Light and electromagnetic waves do not need matter to travel.
List some severe weather patterns.Explain each pattern and tell where it is found. Tropical storms (hurricanes) start as low-pressure areas over warm ocean water. Tornadoes are rotating air funnels that descend from storm clouds, often reaching the ground. The are found throughout the world but they are common in Oklahoma, Nebraska, Illinois, and Ohio. Monsoonsare wind systems that seasonally reverse direction. Monsoon winds bring rain from the ocean in the summer, and bring drought from land during the winter. Monsoons can be found over the Asian continent and Australia.
Suppose a population of small lizards lives on an island of black volcanic rock. The lizards range in color from light gray to dark gray. As birds of prey feed on the lizards, they choose the light grey ones far more often than the dark gray ones. What will most likely happen to the skin color trait in this lizard population. • In this situation, the dark grey lizards are better adapted for survival. Over time their numbers will most likely increase while the number of lighter grey lizards will decrease. The accumulation of favorable variations in a population illustrates natural selection.
Homeostasis Energy Transfer Transportation of molecules Disposal of Waste Synthesis of new molecules Kidneys filter nitrogen from cells. Amino acids link to form proteins Light energy is converted to chemical energy in glucose. Water moves through cell membranes. A dog pants after a long run. Match each process with its example The dog pants to cool of in order to return his system to its normal balance.
An element is a basic substance made of a single type of atom. Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and gold are all elements. • What is an element? Give an example. • How are atoms and molecules related to elements? Molecules are chemical combinations of two or more atoms. Hydrogen and oxygen can combine to make a molecule of water (H20).
What is the relationship between the processes of respiration and photosynthesis? • Respiration produces carbon dioxide and water; which are the raw material used in photosynthesis. The products of photosynthesis (glucose and oxygen) are the raw materials of respiration.
Identify some physical properties of substances and give examples. • Color (gold is often yellow) • Hardness (diamonds are the hardest mineral) • Conductivity (copper conducts electricity) • Density (lead is dense) • Ductility (copper can be molded into a wire) • Magnetism (iron, cobalt, and nickel are magnetic)
A biome is a distinct ecological community of plants and animals living together in a particular climate. • Define Biome. • Name 6 common biomes. Describe the climate of each. • Arctic tundra: dry and wet seasons; cold • Deciduous forest: moisture evenly distributed throughout the year; warm summers, cold winters • Desert: sporadic, highly localized moisture; great daily range of temperatures. • Coniferous forest: moisture that varies throughout the year; cold winters, cool summers • Tropical rainforest: long wet season with a short dry season, hot. • Temperate grassland: wet and dry seasons; hot
The noble gas neon is used in Problem 4 for filling neon signs. Like other noble elements, it has a full octet (complete outer energy level) of electrons, which makes the gas A. freeze at room temperature. B. react with other gases in the air. C. unlikely to combine with other elements. D. solidify at standard pressure and temperature. C. unlikely to combine with other elements.
1. Gertrude cut two bars of different types of soap into four pieces each. She put one piece from each bar into each of four beakers, labeled Beaker W, Beaker X, Beaker Y, and Beaker Z. Each beaker contained a different unknown liquid. According to the results shown in the picture, which beaker contained the liquid that was densest? A. Beaker W B. Beaker X C. Beaker Y D. Beaker Z A. Beaker W
# of Protons • Draw a simple model of an oxygen atom showing the placement of the nucleus, protons, neutrons, and electrons. • Which part gives atomic number of the element? • How would you make your atom an ion? An Isotope? An atom becomes an ion (electrically charged) when it loses or gains and electron. An isotope has extra neutrons, increasing the mass of an atom. Proton Neutron Electron
1. At which level is the most energy available? Producer level (bottom level) 2. At which level is the least energy available? 3rd level consumer 3. What percent of the producer energy is available to the filter feeders? 10 percent (100/1000) 4. What percent of the producer energy is available to the first order carnivore? 1 percent (10/1000)
What is the name of the scale that measures the strength of acids and bases? pH scale What would be the pH of an acid, a base, and a neutral substance? Acid = less than 7; base = more than 7; neutral = 7 Give examples of substances or situation where you may test for acids and bases. Fish tanks, swimming pools
How do science and invention affect one another? • Invention uses scientific principles to make something work better or to create a new tool (the discovery of electromagnetic waves let to the invention of TV.) • Using new tools (inventions) allows scientists to determine unknown scientific principles. (The Hubble telescope allows scientists to learn more about the universe)
Limiting factors keep populations from growing forever. In which of the following situations does the population decline because of a density-independent limiting factor? In which is the decline due to a density-dependent limiting factor? • About 10,000 sea lions live on an island in the Arctic Ocean. Most of them die when a volcano erupts on the island. Density independent because the death was caused by a natural disaster. • A herd of antelope lives on a prairie between two mountain ranges. As the population continues to grow, many antelope die from starvation. Density dependent there is not enough food for a growing population of antelope so some must die off. Availability of food is directly related to the size of the population.
Distinguish between biotic factors and abiotic factors in an organism’s environment. List all biotic factors. Give examples of abiotic factors. • biotic factors are the living factors • abiotic factors are the non living factors that affect the organisms in an environment. • Biotic factors are prokaryotes, protists, fungi, plants and animals. • Abiotic factors include temperature, water, and light.
What is the Law of Conservation of Energy? • In any physical or chemical change, energy can not be created or destroyed. Mg2+ + 2Cl- => MgCl2
Scientific Law vs. Scientific Theory • A Scientific Theory is a well-tested explanation for a set of observations. Ex. It is against the law to drink and drive because driving while intoxicated causes car crashes. • A Scientific Law is a statement that summarizes a pattern found in nature without attempting to explain it. Ex. Do not drink and drive.
Fission is a reaction the produces energy when nuclei split apart into fragments. Fusion is a process in which two nuclei come together. • Define fission and fusion. • Fission or fusion? • New elements being formed in the intense heat of stars. • Neutron hitting uranium-235 to release energy like a nuclear bomb. • Power generated in a nuclear submarine’s reactor. Fusion Fission Fission
Define the following terms: • Tectonic plates • Theory of plate tectonics • Mantle convection Moving sheets of rock that form the Earth’s surface. The theory that explains how a few thin, rigid tectonic plates move across the Earth. Plates move because of mantle convection. Pangea = all continents were once connected but now are separated by oceans. A force deep in the Earth, caused by internal heat energy, moves continents and the plates.
At 25°C, water has a density of 1.0 g/mL and vegetable oil has a density of 0.90 g/mL. How would a substance with a density of 0.95 g/mL behave when placed in both oil and water? A. sink in both oil and water B. sink in oil and float on water C. float on oil and sink in water D. float on both oil and water B. Sink in oil and float on water
Define conduction, convection and radiation. • Conduction is the transfer of heat across two materials which have physical contact with each other. Ex. Metal pot on the stove is heated when the burner is on. • Convection is the process by which heat is transferred by the movement of a heated fluid (gas or liquid). Ex. Steam rises from a pot of boiling water. • Radiation is the transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves. This form of transfer does not need a medium (material) for travel. Ex. Earth is heated by electromagnetic waves that ravel through space from the sun.
Label the graph in Figure 4-4, which depicts the population growth for a sample of paramecium. Use these terms: initial growth stage, exponential growth stage, leveling-off stage, carrying capacity. carrying capacity leveling-off stage exponential growth initial growth stage
State Newton’s Laws of Motion • Unless acted on by an outside force, a body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion remains in motion. (Inertia) • Change of motion is proportional to the force used to produce the change. • For every action there is an equal reaction.
Define potential energy and kinetic energy. Give and example of each. • Potential energy is the energy of position. Ex. A pendulum at the top of its swing. • Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Ex. The pendulum actually moving.
Define Radioactivity:Give an example of one beneficial use of radioactivity • Radioactivity is the spontaneous release of energy by certain atoms, such as uranium, as these atoms disentegrate. • Radioactivity helps doctors to see the development of cancer by using a radioactive liquid traveling through the body to highlight masses in an x-ray.