Imperialism and Nation-State Formation The Age of Imperialism was a time period beginning around 1870 when modern, relatively developed nations were taking over less developed areas, colonizing them, or influencing them in order to expand their own power.
Imperialism • The creation and/or maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire based on domination and subordination
Nationalism • Motivated European nations to compete for colonial possessions • European economic, military, and political power forced colonized countries to trade on European terms • Industrially produced goods flooded colonial markets and displaced traditional industries • Colonized peoples resisted European domination and responded in diverse ways to Western influence
Forms of Imperialism • Colonies • Protectorates • Spheres of influence
Forces Enabling Imperialism • How was a relatively small portion of the earth’s surface (that today has 14% of Africa/Asia’s population) able to conquer Earth’s largest continents?
EuropeanNationalism Source for Raw Materials MissionaryActivity Industrial Revolution European Motives For Colonization Markets forFinishedGoods Military& NavalBases SocialDarwinism EuropeanRacism Places toDumpUnwanted/Excess Popul. HumanitarianReasons Soc. & Eco.Opportunities “WhiteMan’sBurden”
Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 Another point of view?
Europeans: Carving up a Continent Who is missing from this picture???
-British Official “We have been engaged in drawing lines upon maps where no white man’s foot has ever trod. We have been giving away mountains and rivers and lakes to each other, only hindered by the small impediment that we never knew exactly where the mountains and rivers were.”
The “White Man’s Burden” Rudyard Kipling
Remember “The White Man’s Burden”??? Which one do you think is more accurate?
Where Is Dr. Livingstone? DoctorLivingstone,I Presume? Sir Henry Morton Stanley Dr. David Livingstone
David Livingstone • Went to Africa as a missionary but was a combination of missionary, doctor, explorer, scientist and anti-slavery activist. • Reached and named Victoria Falls in 1855. • In 1871 journalist Henry Stanley found him at Lake Tanganyika, greeting him with the famous words "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" Link
What is the Source of the Nile? Sir Richard Burton John Speke
The Belgian Congo: "King Leopold's Ghost“ The Colonization Of The Congo Pt. 1
Africa: the Congo • In the 1870s King Leopold II of Belgium employed Henry Stanley to help develop commercial ventures and establish a colony called Congo Free State in the basin of the Congo River • Leopold said the Congo Free State would be a free-trade zone open to all European merchants in order to forestall competition from his more powerful European neighbors Leopold II
Africa: the Congo • In reality, Leopold ran the Congo Free State as a personal colony and filled it with lucrative rubber plantations run under brutal conditions • Humanitarians protested Leopold’s colonial regime • In 1908 the Belgium government took control of the colony and it became known as Belgian Congo Clearing tropical forests ate away at Leopold’s profit margins so Congolese farming villages such as this one were leveled to make way for rubber tree plantations
5-8 Million Victims! (50% of Popul.) It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit. -- Belgian Official
Boers Clash With the Xhosa Tribes Boer Farmer
The Great Trek, 1836-38 Afrikaners
Diamond Mines Raw Diamonds
Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) De Beer “The Colossus of Rhodes”
Cecil Rhodes • Went to south Africa in 1871 and by 1889 he controlled 90% of the world’s diamond production • Also gained a healthy stake in the gold market • Served as prime minister of the British Cape Colony from 1890-1896 and saw the Cape Colony as a base of operations for the extension of British control to all of Africa
South Africaand theBoer War (1899-1902) Principal sponsor of the Cape-to-Cairo dream where Britain would dominate the continent. Diamonds and gold were discovered in the Transvaal and Rhodes wanted to extend his influence there but region controlled by Boers (descendents of Dutch settlers)
Boer-British Tensions Increase • 1877 – Britain annexed the Transvaal. • 1883 – Boers fought British in the Transvaal and regained its independence. - Paul Kruger becomes President. • 1880s – Gold discovered in the Transvaal
Paul Kruger (1825-1904) Kruger Telegram (1902): Kaiser Wilhelm II, dispatched telegram to Boers congratulating them on defeating British invaders without need of German assistance Anger swept through Britain aimed at Germany.
The Boer War: 1899 - 1900 The British The Boers
South Africaand theBoer War (1899-1902) Massive British force eventually defeated Boers and in 1910 the Transvaal, Orange Free State, Cape Colony, & Natal combined to form the Union of South Africa.
A Future British Prime Minister British Boer War Correspondent, Winston Churchill
Many Africans fought back: “I have listened to your words but can find no reason why I should obey you – I would rather die first… If you desire friendship, then I am ready for it, today and always. But I cannot be your subject. If you desire war, then I am ready.” -Chief Machemba (1890) What do you think happened?
As states industrialized during this period, they also expanded their existing overseas colonies and established new types of colonies and transoceanic empires. • Regional warfare and diplomacy both resulted in and were affected by this process of modern empire building.