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I. State and Nation

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I. State and Nation

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  1. I. State and Nation • A. state: political unit (can be used interchangeably with country) • B. nation: refers to a tightly knit group of people (usually having similarities: culture, language, religion, etc.) e.g. Yugoslavia was a state but not a nation. • nationalism - loyalty to a nation/ sense of inclusion

  2. Centripetal and Centrifugal • Centripetal forces: factors that unify or hold a state or nation together. (peace) • “directed toward the center” • “attract and hold” • Centrifugal forces: factors that dis-unify or destabilize a state or nation. (fights) • “Spread out from center” • P.219 • Unitary and Federal Governments

  3. Former Yugoslavia - State not a nation? Why? • Cultural transition zone • Centripetal- USSR and Tito • Centrifugal – religion, ethnicity, history, genocide Fellmann

  4. Stateless Nations - Have no national Territory • e.g. 1990 Palestinian Arabs • 6.5 million (Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria) • Palestinians have common culture and religion (centripetal) but no territory (causes fight with Israel) CIA Factbook. online

  5. Native American- Stateless Nation?

  6. Kurdistan • 20 million Kurds • Turkey and Iraq very volatile relationship • Kurds desire territory or at least autonomous control of land in Iraq and Turkey Fellmann 343

  7. Concept: Nation-State • Ideal built on homogeneity of territory and culture • Politically organized • Sovereignty: final authority over territories political and military affairs • Example - Japan • Ethnic Groups in Japan Japanese 99% Picture Here CIA Factbook. online

  8. A. Territory Size-micro vs macro • Does Size =Power? • Greater land area may equal greater resources • Could also lead to problems with regulating area (communication and transportation) CIA Factbook. online Vatican Map Micro State - Vatican Map

  9. Size is not necessarily an indicator for success • Russia • Land Area: 6,550.7 square miles • Purchasing Power Parity $9700 (2002) • United States • Land Area: 3,787.4 • Purchasing Power Parity $36,300 (2002) CIA Factbook. online

  10. B. Territory Shape Fellmann 423

  11. 1. Compact State: (circle shape) • the distance from any point of the country to its center is about the same. • supposed to provide the most geographic stability • e.g. Poland, Iceland, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zimbabwe

  12. 2. Fragmented State • consisting of 2 or more pieces • can make some interactions within the country more difficult • e.g. Philippines

  13. Hello down there! 3. Elongated • Can create separatist areas due to distance from center or core • Vietnam, Chile, Norway

  14. Prorupt States • An area that extends from a compact area • Can create room for factions geographically • Southern Thailand

  15. Perforated State • broken by another country • 1.exclaves: separated from the state by another state • e.g. Azerbaijan (Fellmann 347) • 2. enclaves: surrounded by another state • e.g. Christian Armenia • b. e.g. South Africa-Lesotho US question next slide

  16. Practice Analysis of Shape • What US state is an exclave?a part of a country entirely surrounded by foreign territory: viewed from the position of the home country • Enclave: a part of a country entirely surrounded by foreign territory: viewed from the position of the surrounding territories • The same state is also a prorupt state. • What shape best describes California?

  17. What is a boundary? • Boundary: a vertical plane that cuts through the airspace and ground to determine ownership

  18. Problems Boundaries • Lack of knowledge of underground resources when boundaries were created • 1990 Kuwait vs. Iraq: Rumaylah oil reserves • created International conflict (picture 349)

  19. How are Boundaries Created? • Defined - usually legally by someone who is not directly involved (written) • Delimitation - mapped • Demarcation - marked with posts, walls, fences, etc. (Fellman 430)

  20. Types of Boundaries • Geometric boundary: straight line boundary totally unrelated to physical features • e.g. United States border with Canada • Four Level analysis- Level 2 - Patterns • Level 3 - why there?

  21. Types of Boundaries • Physical-political/ or natural-political boundaries: boundaries which conform to physical features • e.g. United States border with Mexico along the Rio Grande

  22. Types of Boundaries- genetic boundaries • A. antecedent boundary: some boundaries were defined and delimited before humans settled • e.g. Malaysia • B. subsequent (after) boundaries: boundaries which developed according to the cultural landscape • e.g. Vietnam/ China • Consequent (ethnografic) • Accommodates religion • Type of

  23. Subsequent Boundaries When Great Britain prepared to leave the Indian subcontinent after World War II, it was decided that two independent states would be established in the region: India and Pakistan. The boundary between the two countries, defined in the partition settlement of 1947, was thus both a subsequent and a superimposed line. As millions of Hindus migrated from the northwestern portion of the subcontinent to seek homes in India, millions of Muslims left what would become India for Pakistan. In a sense, they were attempting to ensure that the boundary would be consequent, that is, that it would coincide with a division based on religion.

  24. Types of BoundariesGenetic continued • C. superimposed boundaries: forcibly drawn boundaries across a culturally unified landscape • e.g. Papau New Guinea/ Indonesia • d. relic boundary: border that has ceased to function imprints still evident in cultural landscape. Castles (Wales-England)

  25. IV. Boundary Disputes • A. Territorial / Definitional • -Whose Land is it? Focus on legal language of the agreement • B. Positional / Locational => 1991 • 1. focus on delimitation and demarcation of the border • 2. the interpretation of the definition is the dispute • 3. Saudi Arabia vs. Yemen (oil rich border not covered in the treaty)

  26. IV. Boundary Disputes • C. Functional / Operational Border Dispute • 1. way boundary should function • 2. how should each side handle cross-border migration • D. Resources / Allocational Border Dispute • 1. dispute over boundary due to location of resources • 2. water supplies - Colorado River

  27. Various boundary disputes - what type are they? 1. Botswana has built electric fences to stem the thousands of Zimbabweans who flee to find work and escape political persecution. 2. Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by 2002 Ethiopia- Eritrea Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but despite international intervention, mutual animosities, accusations, and armed posturing have prevented demarcation; Ethiopia refuses to withdraw to the delimited boundary until claimed technical errors made by the EEBC that ignored "human geography" are addressed, including the award of Badme, the focus of the 1998-2000 war. 3. All of the Spratly Islands are claimed by China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts of them are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines; in March 2005, the national oil companies China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands. Source: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/fields/2070.html