Grain Products Nutrition and Wellness Gold 5
Key Concepts • Describe how food is made from Grains. • Explain how the processing of grains can affect their nutritional value. • Name and describe six grains.
Main Idea • Grains are a versatile, nutritious, and flavorful addition to meals and an economical way to stretch a food budget.
Grains • Grains are plants in the grass family cultivated for their fruits or seeds. • Common grains include • Wheat • Oats • Rye • Barley • Buckwheat
Grains • Kernels- separate dry fruits harvested and processed for food. • Sometimes called wheat berries. • Four parts to every grain kernel • Bran • Endosperm • Germ • Hull
Kernel Make-up • Bran- edible, outer layer of the kernel • Endosperm- Largest part of the kernel made of proteins and starches. Supply the plant with food. • Germ- the seed that grows the new plant. • Hull- the edible outer shell that is removed after harvesting.
Nutrients in Grains Bran Contains • Dietary fiber • B Vitamins • Minerals • Endosperm Contains • Complex carbohydrates • Proteins
Nutrients in Grains • Germ contains • Protein • Unsaturated Fats • B Vitamins • E Vitamins • Iron • Zinc • Phytochemicals
Nutrients in Grains • All grains must be processed before consumption. • The type of processing affects a grain’s nutrient value. • A Grains’ bran and germ are often removed during processing, leaving only the endosperm. • White flour and breakfast cereals
Nutrients in Grains • Removing the Bran and Germ removes most vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, and dietary fiber. • Enrichment- replacing lost nutrients using supplements and/or fortified nutrients.
Nutrients in Grains • Whole-Grain products- processed with the whole grain kernel. • Include products like whole wheat flour, whole grain bread, and whole grain cereals. • Maintains most of the natural nutritional value.
Grains-Rice • Starchy seed of plants grown in flooded fields in warm climates • Grown mostly in Asia, but also in the United States. • Rice is often identified by the length of the rice grain.
Types of Rice Grains • Long-Grain Rice • Most popular rice in the U.S. • Grains are fluffy and stay separated when cooked. • Fine texture and a nutlike aroma and flavor. • Medium-Grain Rice • Plump, tender, and moist. • Grains stick together. • Works well for puddings and cold salads.
Types of Rice Grains • Short-Grain Rice • Almost round • Highest starch content of the 3 types of rice • Used in creamy dishes and Asian cuisine
Rice Processing • Processed in several different ways yielding products with different colors, textures, and nutritional values. • Enriched Rice- Bran and Germ removed losing nutrients. • Brown Rice- Whole-grain form of rice. • Takes considerably longer to cook. • Converted- Steamed under pressure to remove hull and preserve nutrients • Instant- Precooked and Dehydrated before packaging. • Minute Rice
Corn • Most popular food plant in the world and the most widely grown crop in the United States. • Used for many purposes including food, plastics, dyes, and ethanol fuel. • Served in many different forms.
Corn • Hominy- dried kernel with the hull and germ removed, leaving only the endosperm. • Grits- coarsely ground hominy used as breakfast cereals and side dishes. • Cornmeal- ground, dried, corn kernels. • Cornstarch- Used as a thickening agents for desserts. Made only from the endosperm of the corn kernel.
Oats • Pleasant, slightly sweet flavor. • Used mostly to feed live-stock and for a hot breakfast cereal. • Have a considerable amount s of nutrients and dietary fiber. • Can be pre-cooked and dehydrated for instant uses.
Other Grains • Barley- contains large amounts of dietary fiber and has a mild flavor with a chewy texture. Used mostly in soups and stews. • Rye- often used in crackers and bread, rye is a dark grain with a hearty flavor. • Wild Rice- a seed of a water grass with a crisp texture and nutlike flavor. • Not an actual form of rice.
Pasta • Pasta is an Italian word meaning “paste” that refers to dough made from flour and water. • Macaroni- made from durum wheat flour and water. • Noodles-which have egg solids added for tenderness.
Pasta • Durum wheat is grown only for pasta and is processes into semolina flour. • Semolina flour gives pasta its yellow color and nutlike flavor. • Products made from durum keep their shape and firm texture when cooked.
Pasta • Pasta is sold in both dry and fresh forms • Dried tend to be less expensive, have a longer shelf life, and are a staple in many diets. • Fresh pasta is perishable and is found in the refrigerated sections.
Common Types of Pasta • Egg Noodles- Egg soilds added for tenderness. • Orzo- Small, rice-shaped pasta, good for salads and soups. • Penne-Straight tube-shaped pasta cut diagonally on the ends.
Common Types of Pasta • Elbow macaroni- Small, curved tube-shaped pasta. • Conchiglie- Seashell pasta • Manicotti- Large tube-shaped pasta, usually stuffed
Common Types of Pasta Linguine- Long, narrow, flat pasta. Holds sauces well. Lasagna-Wide, flat noodles, usually baked with sauce. Fettuccine-long, flat pasta, wider than linguine. Farfalle-Bowtie pasta Spaghetti- Long, thin round pasta.