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Grain Products

Grain Products

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Grain Products

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  1. Grain Products

  2. Parts of a grain kernel

  3. Nutrients in Grains • Endosperm • Complex carbohydrates • Incomplete protein • Bran • Fiber • B vitamins • Iron • Germ • Unsaturated fat

  4. Refined or Unrefined? • Unrefined Grains • Contain entire grain kernel • All naturally occurring nutrients • Fiber • Refined Grains • Bran and Germ are usually removed during processing • Fiber is removed • Often Enriched Grain products • Nutrients lost during processing are added

  5. Wheat • Wheat Berries • Entire wheat kernel • Bulgur • Wheat kernels that are • steamed dried and crushed • Tabbouleh • Cracked Wheat • Often added to bread

  6. Rice • Often categorized by grain length • Long Grain • Basmati • Medium Grain • Short Grain • Italian Arborio • Risotto • Brown Rice - Whole grain version of rice • Wild Rice – Seed of water grass • (not really a rice)

  7. Oats • Most often served as oatmeal • See page 453 for a variety • of other grain products

  8. Pasta • Italian word = Paste • Macaroni Products – made from Durum Wheat Flour (Semolina) • Noodles – Egg solids added for tenderness • 5% egg solids = Egg Noodles • Enriched or Whole Grain

  9. Preparing Grains • When grains heated in water – • Starch granules start to move • Chemical bonds are broken • Layers of starch become loosened • Water enters the starch • Starch swells to a larger size • Starch becomes softer • Grain becomes tender enough to eat

  10. Cooking Pasta • Large pot • Allow enough room for movement • Boiling water • Al dente – • To the tooth – Tender yet firm

  11. Cooking Rice • Rice • Barley • Kasha • These grains absorb all of the cooking water • Stir minimally • Covered pot • Chewy if undercooked • Gummy if over cooked