GRAINS are the edible seeds of certain grasses. CEREAL is the common name for grains. GRAINS
__ENDOSPERM___ • Largest part of the kernel, plant’s food supply • Provides: • Starch (Complex Carb) • Protein The Wheat Kernel • __Bran___ • Edible outer layer of the kernel • Provides: • *Fiber (cellulose) • Vitamins • Minerals • Protein • __GERM/Embryo___ • Seed that grows into a new plant • Provides: • Unsaturated Fatty Acids • “B” and “E” Vitamins • Iron, Zinc • Other Trace Minerals • Proteins
2. Some grains are covered with an inedible outer coat called the hullwhich is removed after harvesting.
WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS IN GRAINS • B3 Niacineggs, meats, liver, whole-grain breads and cereals Needed for energy-producing reactions in cells present in all body tissues Prevents pellagra, acne, nervous disorders, metabolizes carbohydrates, fats, proteins into energy • B 6 Pyridoxinelean meats, leafy green vegetables, whole-grain cereals Needed for formation of red blood cells, certain proteins, and use of fats during metabolism Prevents premenstrual symptoms and anemia, controls irritability, tremors, and convulsions • B5 Pantothenic Acidliver, kidneys, whole-grain breads and cereal, nuts, eggs, dark green vegetables, green beans Needed for metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and formation of hormones and nerve regulating substance
B 1 Thiaminwhole grain or enriched bread and cereals, yeast, liver, pork, fish, lean meats, poultry, milk • needed to help convert food to energy by promoting proper use of sugars prevents beriberi, lifts depression, relieves hyperactivity, decreases fatigue • B 2 Riboflavinmilk, whole-grain breads and cereals, liver, lean meats, eggs, leafy green vegetables • needed to help body use carbohydrates, proteins, fats—particularly to release energy to cells for growth, healthy skin, proper eye function Pregnant women need riboflavin to reduce the risk of cleft lip & cleft palate in fetus
FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS IN GRAINS E vegetable oils, whole-grain cereals needed for normal red blood cells, muscles and tissues. Protects fat from abnormal breakdown in body tissues
Minerals in grain products • Iron carries oxygen to all body cells • Chromium helps regulate blood sugar levels (helps prevent and treat diabetes) • Copperhelps body assimilate iron and form healthy bones • Phosphorushelps in production of energy and activator of B vitamin complex • Potassiumworks with sodium to normalize flow of body fluids • Magnesium needed for all body functions • Manganeseblood sugar regulation, health of tendons and bones • Seleniumfights free radicals (destructive cells that may be precursors to cancer) • Zinc blood sugar, brain, blood, kidneys, nerves, bones, hair, skin, nails, appetite, sense of smell and taste, reproductive organs
Grain products to eat anytime • Whole grain breads and cereals • Brown rice • Pasta
Grain products to eat sometimes • Muffins • Waffles, pancakes • Bagels • Rolls • Heavily sweetened cereals • Granola cereals
Grain products to eat less oftenadded fat & sugar(simple CHO) • Croissants White bread • Doughnuts • Danish pastries • Bread stuffing from mix • Crepes
Matching • Can you match the correct grain with it’s name??? • Around the room are jars of different types of grains. On the back of your study guide, number 1- 17 and try and guess the correct name of the grains. Your choices are on the back of your study guide.
Principle Whole grain products common grains in North America include Wheat Rye Corn Barley Rice Buckwheat Oats Millett
Use for the Principle Grains • Wheat - flour, cereals, pasta • Corn - vegetable, cereals, grits, and hominy • Rice - cereals, rice • Oats - cereals, an ingredients in baked products and in some desserts • The cereals made from oats are usually made of the whole grain with only the outer husk removed. Because of this process, oat cereals are rich in nutrients. • Rye, Barley, and Buckwheat - are used for flour • Millet - salad sprouts, cereal, flour, bird seed
GRAIN CLASSIFICATION • Breakfast cereals • Pastas • Flour • Rice
Wheat is known as the staff of life • When a product claims that it is “Whole Wheat” or “Whole Grain”, it must use the entire wheat kernel, or all three parts. • Since products like white bread and rice, use only the endosperm, which is the least beneficial part of the wheat kernel, they are not as healthy of a grain choice. • Enriched: some of the nutrients that were lost in processing are added back into the product. • Fortified: 10% more of the Daily Value for the nutrient is being added.
Principles of Grain cookery • Goal is to avoid lumps—two method to separate cereal granule. • Cereals may be added slowly to rapidly boiling water while stirring. • Fine cereals may be mixed with a small amount of cold water before they are stirred into boiling water. • Several things happen with starch is cooked: • the starch absorbs water • with heat and an excess of water, starch swells enormously • with continued heating, starch becomes translucent • thickness develops
TYPES OF RICE B. Long Grain Rice 4-5 times longer than the width. After cooked, it will be dry, light, and fluffy. Short, plump and almost round. Cooked grains are soft and cling together. Chopsticks C. Short Grain Rice Shorter than long grain rice. When cooked, it is moist and tender. A. Conventional Rice E. Pre-Cooked/Instant Rice It has been completely cooked and then dehydrated. The process reduces time required for cooking. D. Brown Rice *Has the most fiber! Whole grain form. Chewy texture and “nut-like” flavor. Rich in vitamins, minerals and fiber.
To cook rice: • Double the amount of water for the rice. - Use about 2 CUPS of water for every 1 cup of rice. • Bring the water to a boil. • Add rice and stir. • Cover and reduce heat to a simmer for 20-25 minutes. • The rice should be tender but firm, and no water should be visible. - If some water remains, continue cooking with the lid off. Rice Yield: Rice triples as it cooks 1 cup uncooked rice will make 3 cups cooked rice (3:1 ratio)
Pasta Facts • Usually low cost entrees to purchase and to make. • Store pasta in a tightly covered container at room temperature • Al Dente = “Firm to the tooth” • Pasta’s test for doneness
4. To cook pasta: • Fill a large pot 2/3’s full with water. - About 1 QUART of water for every 4 ounces of dry pasta. • Bring water to a boil and add pasta. • Continue boiling uncovered and stir frequently. • Cook pasta to al dente stage (pasta remains firm to the bite) about 10-12 minutes. • Drain pasta in a colander. Pasta Yield: Doubles as it cooks. 1 cup uncooked pasta will make 2 cups cooked pasta (2:1 ratio)
Eat and Work! • Complete your grain assignments as you enjoy your Chex Mix!