The Need • The public was disenchanted with the school system in the early 1900s. • Schools were out-of-touch with the realities of the real world • There was a need for a different type of education
Another Need • Farmers needed systematic help to fight their problems (such as the boll weevil) • The once a year Farmer’s Institute was not enough • The competing programs offered by state boards of agriculture, the General Education Board, universities and agricultural societies was merely a hodge podge of activity • Simply put, there was a need for something like the Extension Service.
First stirrings….extension • Farm Demonstration Work in the South to fight the boll weevil and the subsequent hiring of county agents by the General Education Board was the start of extension.
Early Efforts to Organize Support • Governor Douglas of Massachusetts appointed a commission to study schools in that state. • In 1906 the Douglas Commission recommended that vocational education be added to the school curriculum.
Precursors to the Smith Acts • Burkett-Pollard Bill (NE) (1906) • sought federal aid for the teaching of agriculture in normal (teacher training) schools • Clay-Livingston Bill (GA) - 1907 • sought federal aid to establish an agricultural high school in each congressional district in the United States
Precursors……cont….. • Nelson Amendment (1907) • Amendment to the Morrill Act of 1890 • provided $5,000 for five years, $25,000 annually after five year to land-grant colleges for general support. • One special provision of the amendment opened the door to prepare teachers of agriculture . . .
Nelson Amendment • money could be used “for providing courses for the special preparation of instructors for teaching the elements of agriculture and the mechanical arts.” • summer school sessions for teachers were utilized extensively (especially elementary teachers) • some 4 year teacher training in agriculture started
Precursors… • Davis Bill (MN) (1907) • sought federal support for secondary school instruction in agriculture, home economics and the mechanical arts and branch experiment stations
Precursors… • McLaughlin Bill (1909) • sought federal support for extension work • Dolliver (IA)-Davis (MN) Bill (1910) • sought federal support for extension work and secondary vocational education (Dolliver submitted two bills one for extension, one for vocational education but they were combined by the Senate Ag Committee. Things looked good for the bill but Dolliver unexpectedly died)
Precursors • Page Bill (1911, 1912, 1913) • sought federal support for extension work, branch experiment stations and secondary vocational education (this was basically the Dolliver bill) • The bill never passed for a variety of reasons • bills tried to accomplish too much, which divided the support • Some folks supported extension but not vocational education and vice versa • Page was not very skilled as a legislator
The Incompetent Senator! • Carroll S. Page (VT)
Senator Page The Morrill Act has proven to be the beginning … for really carrying vocational education to the masses of our people.
Precursors • Smith-Lever Bill (1912) • goal was to establish the extension service • This competed with the Page Bill • The Great Compromise • The supporters of vocational education would support the Smith-Lever Bill. In return, a Commission on National Aid to Vocational Education would be created to study the need for federal funding for vocational education.
Finally!! • Smith-Lever Act (1914) • established the extension service
Commission on National Aid to Vocational Education • As part of the compromise, the Commission was “stacked” with supporters of Vocational Education • The Commission collected data and held hearings • The Commission reported there was a need for vocational education in the schools and that it should be federally funded. • It took some time for the bill they drafted to pass because of issues surrounding World War I. (Charles Prosser, a committee member wrote the legislation. Smith and Hughes didn’t)
Finally!! • Smith-Hughes Act (1917) • provided federal funds to support vocational education in the public schools
Smith-Lever Provisions • “there may be inaugurated in connection with the (land-grant) college or colleges...agricultural extension work which shall be carried on in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture…”
Smith-Lever Provisions • “...in any State in which two or more such colleges have been or hereafter may be established, the appropriations hereinafter made to such State shall be administered by such college or colleges as the legislature of such State may direct”
Smith-Lever Provisions • “That cooperative agricultural extension work shall consist of the giving of instruction and practical demonstrations in agriculture and home economics to persons not attending or resident in said colleges in the several communities, and imparting to such persons information on said subjects through field demonstrations, publications, and otherwise”
Smith-Lever Provisions • Each state was to receive “...$10,000 of which shall be paid annually…” • Additional funds were to be disbursed to states on the basis of “the rural population of each State bears to the total rural population of all the States” • Note: Legislators in the Midwest wanted the act to say farm population. The South had a much larger rural population than farm population.
Smith-Lever Provisions • A state could not receive the additional funds “...until an equal sum has been appropriated for that year by the legislature of such State, or provided by State, county, college, local authority, or individual contributions from within the State, for the maintenance of the cooperative agricultural extension work provided for in this Act.”
Smith-Lever Provisions • “That before the funds herein appropriated shall become available to any college for any fiscal year, plans for the work to be carried on under this Act shall be submitted by the proper officials of each college and approved by the Secretary of Agriculture”
Smith-Lever Provisions • “ ...no portion of said moneys shall be applied, directly or indirectly, to the purchase, erection, preservation, or repair of any building or buildings, or the purchase or rental of land, or in college-course teaching, lectures in colleges, promoting agricultural trains, or any other purpose not specified in this Act…”
Smith-Hughes Provisions • The first paragraph of the Smith-Hughes Act contained four statements: • 1. “to provide for the promotion of vocational education;” • The word “promotion” is misleading, a more correct word would be “establishment”. Tidbit: Since the person (Charles Prosser) who wrote the bill was Director of the National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education, the word promotion might allude to this organization
Smith-Hughes Provisions • 2. “to provide for cooperation with the States in the promotion of such education in agriculture and the trades and industries;” • This statement defined what made up vocational education. Why is home economics not mentioned? The word home economics appears 17 other times in the Act. It is believed by some that home economics was not included in the earlier drafts of the bills. Legend has it that Prosser’s wife made him include home economics. The fact that it is missing here gives credence to that legend. • Trades and industries covered a broad range of jobs.
Smith-Hughes Provisions • 3. “to provide for cooperation with the States in the preparation of teachers of vocational subjects;” • There was much concern over the supply of qualified teachers. Two different paths were taken in regards to vocational teacher training: • Agriculture and Home Economics went with a 4 year college degree as a requirement. At that point in time, few public school teachers had four year degrees. This was designed to assure a quality, well-educated teacher and enhance the status of of the field. • Trade and Industries chose to pull teachers out of industry. The belief was the master craftsman made the best teacher.
Smith-Hughes Provisions • 4. “and to appropriate money and regulate its expenditure.” • This wording as to the purpose of an act is a little strange. It should be self evident.
Smith-Hughes Funds • Provided money to pay salaries of • teachers, supervisors, and directors of agricultural subjects • Tidbit: Director is an unusual word until one notes that agricultural schools had been established prior to Smith-Hughes in Massachusetts. The person in charge of these schools was a Director. Since Prosser had been associate superintendent for vocational education in Massachusetts, this wording isn’t that strange at all.
Smith-Hughes Funds • Provided money to pay salaries of • teachers of trade, home economics and industrial subjects (but no more than 20% of the total money allocated for this purpose could be spent in the area of home economics) • Question: Why could Smith-Hughes funds be used to pay salaries of supervisors and directors in agriculture but not in home economics or trades and industries? • Question 2: Why was home economics limited to 20%?
Smith-Hughes • Tidbit: Teachers who received their salaries from the Smith-Hughes Act were often called “Smith-Hughes teachers” to distinguish them from teachers in schools not receiving Smith-Hughes funding. Agriculture and home economics was taught in many other schools but not all schools received Smith-Hughes monies because of limited funds.
Smith-Hughes Funds • Providing money for teacher training Tidbit: State supervisors of each vocational subject were given authority over the teacher trainers. Federal level supervisors checked the qualifications and approved of the hiring of teacher educators. Many universities became very dependent upon federal funds to pay vocational teacher educators. When this funding was abolished it created shock waves in many states and institutions of higher education.
Smith-Hughes Funds • The states did not have to use all the provisions of the act. For example, if there were no agriculture programs, it didn’t have to ask for the agriculture money. However: • Before a state could receive monies for salaries for any vocational teacher, it must first accept the teacher training monies. This indicates the federal government was serious about training teachers.
Smith-Hughes Funding • Specific amounts of money were allocated to each vocational discipline: • Agricultural appropriations were based on each state’s rural population • Home economics appropriations were based on each state’s urban population • Trade and industrial appropriations were based on each state’s urban population • There was to be a 50-50 federal-state match on all salaries
Smith-Hughes Act - Agriculture • “...under public supervision or control...” • “...controlling purpose...shall be to fit for useful employment…” • “...shall be of less than college grade…” • “...meet the needs of persons over fourteen years of age who have entered upon or who are preparing to enter upon the work of the farm or of the farm home…” • Question: Does the previous phrase also mean adult education?
Smith-Hughes - Agriculture • “...that such schools shall provide for directed or supervised practice in agriculture, either on a farm provided for by the school or other farm, for at least six months per year” • This was interpreted to mean that each student (including adults) is to have a “project” (crops or livestock). • If the teacher is to supervise it, then the teacher will need to be employed during the summer. This is the basis for 12 month employment of agriculture teachers.
Smith-Hughes Funds • Provided money to create a “Federal Board for Vocational Education for the administration of this act and for the purpose of making studies, investigations, and reports to aid in the organization and conduct of vocational education” • Question: Why did Congress create a special board to administer vocational education? • Answer: They were afraid to turn vocational education over to the entrenched education bureaucrats who had been classically educated (remember what happened at UNC.)
Federal Board for Vocational Education • The Board Consisted of: • Secretary of Agriculture • Secretary of Commerce • Secretary of Labor • Commissioner of Education • Three citizens appointed by the President • agriculture • manufacturing and commerce • labor
Federal Board • “The Commissioner of Education may make such recommendations to the Board relative to the administration of this act as he may from time to time deem advisable.” • “It shall be the duty of the chairman of the board to carry out the rules, regulations, and decisions which the board may adopt.”
Federal Board • The Federal Board hired a staff to handle the daily operations and do the real work. • Charles Prosser was hired as the Executive Director • Federal supervisors were hired in the areas of: • Agriculture (N=7) • Trades and Industries (N=7) • Home Economics (N=3) • Commercial Subjects (N=3) (see next slide) • Research (3)
Federal Board • Tidbit: One of the areas of investigation the Federal Board could pursue (as specifically mentioned in the act) was commercial education. Also, a division of commercial education was established with three federal supervisors, but no Smith-Hughes money was allocated to salaries of teachers of Commercial Education. A little strange. • Today we would call Commercial Education Marketing Education and Business Education.
Original Federal Regions North Atlantic West Central North Central Pacific Ag and T&I had regional offices.Two Ag supervisors worked the South; one was for Black schools. Southern
Federal Regions -1920 North Atlantic Pacific North Central In 1920 one region was eliminated and all the regional people moved to Washington. Southern
Federal Board • Because of the depression, the federal government was restructured in the 1930s. • In 1933 the administrative responsibilities and staff of the Federal Board were transferred to the Department of the Interior, Office of Education. • The Federal Board continued to operate as an advisory board until 1946 when it was abolished. (Clarence Poe was a member)
Memorandum of Understanding • In 1918 a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was established between federal officials responsible for vocational agriculture and for extension. • This MOU was revised from time to time. • A brief description of each program was provided, then specific duties of each were outlined.
Memorandum of Understanding • Unless the activity is specifically related to classes taught, the agriculture teacher is not to do extension activities. However, it is recognized there may be isolated instances where the agricultural teacher is called upon by farmers in the school district. This should represent a “small and incidental” part of the job.
Memorandum of Understanding • Teachers of vocational agriculture or representatives of vocational agricultural work should be invited to participate in all meetings conducted by the extension service for the formulation of county and State agricultural programs.
Memorandum of Understanding • The extension service should not enroll vocational agriculture students in 4-H. • Services should not overlap.