AVIATION HISTORY Lecture 2: Early Aviation By :ZulianaIsmail
Contents • 1903-1914: Before WW 1(11yrs) • 1914-1918 (4yrs): World War 1 • 1919-1938 (19yrs):Golden Age • 1939-1945 (6yrs): World War 2 • 1945-1950 (5yrs): Cold War
Aviation Pioneer Fathers of Aviation • George Cayley • Otto Lilienthal • Wilbur & Orville Wright Major Manufacturers • Wright Bro. Company • Henry & Maurice Farman • Anthony Fokker • Geoffrey de Havilland Aircraft Inventor @ Pilot • Louis Blériot • Glenn Curtiss • Charles Lindbergh • Amelia Earhart
Aviation Before World War 1 1903-1914
Aviation Before WW 1: 1903-1914 • 1903: The Wright Brothers make history as the first to fly a powered aircraft. • 1906: Brazilian-born Alberto Santos-Dumont makes the first successful European airplane flight. • 1908:In a field near Paris, Henry Farmanbecomes the first to officially fly a one-kilometer circular course, the world‘s longest distance at the time. • 1908: Piloting his plane, the June Bug, Glenn Curtiss wins a silver trophy and national acclaim for becoming the first American to officially fly a distance over one kilometer. • 1910:Zeppelin provides the first commercial air service for passengers.
Aviation Before WW 1: 1903-1914 • 1909: After several failed attempts, French aviator Louis Blériotbecomes the first to fly across the English Channel. Flying his Blériot XI, he covers the 23-mile distance in 37 minutes. • 1912:Harriet Quimby becomes the first woman to fly across the English Channel.
1900-Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin- used an engine to fly balloons Airship or Dirigible Also known as ‘dirigible’ which means controllable.
Ferdinand Adolf August Heinrich Graf von Zeppelin (1838-1917). Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin • Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin was the inventor of the rigid airship, or dirigible balloon. • Ferdinand von Zeppelin spent nearly a decade developing the dirigible. • The first of many rigid dirigibles, called zeppelins in his honor, was completed in 1900. • Zeppelin airships-elongated bags filled with gas , fitted with engines, propellers and rudder
Airship Buoyant Force Air is pushed backward by Airship’s propellers. Backward momentum is produced. • Magnitude equal backward momentum • Causes the airship moves forward Forward Momentum Backward Momentum Airship is powered by engines which are attached to the gondola. Gondola is the cabin suspended from an airship or balloon and can carry passengers
How Airship Works • Upward motion is based on the principle of Archimedes. • When airship rises, density of air inside the airship decreases. • When up thrust equal to weight of airship, airship will float in atmosphere. • Descend of airship is controlled by the release of Helium gas inside it. • Direction of the airship is not dependent on the wind but it’s direction was controlled by rudder.
1st commercial air service • In 1910, a zeppelin provided the first commercial air service for passengers. • It provided air service between Europe and America in the 1920s and 1930s • One such airship was 3 times larger than a Boeing 747 and cruised at 68 mph.
Destruction of zeppelin’s airship • The zeppelin’s airship named “Hindenburg” explodes, May 6, 1937at Lakehurst Naval Air Station. • The Hindenburg marked the end of large scale Zeppelin travel.
Critical Thinking WHY AIRSHIP CANNOT BECOME AN AIRLINER ?
1906: Santos-Dumont makes the first successful European airplane flight. 14-bis, the plane in which Santos-Dumont made his historic 1907 flight. His plane flies a distance of about 200 feet in Paris.
1908:Piloting his plane, the “June Bug”, Glenn Curtiss was first American to fly a distance over one kilometer.
Glenn Curtiss – Father of Naval Aviation • Curtiss was responsible for the first aircraft to take off from and land on the decks of ships at sea. • Curtiss' motives in developing the seaplane was to sell airplanes to the U.S. Navy.
1909: Louis Blériotbecomes the first to fly across the English Channel. • It took 37 minutes for him to fly across the English Channel in 1909.
1909: Monoplanes Era • Monoplanes developed and used for relatively short-distance flights.
1914: 1stscheduled air service in Florida • 1stscheduled air service was seaplane.
Types of Airplane • A monoplane is an aircraft with one main set of wing surfaces. Since the late 1930s it has been the "ordinary" form for a fixed wing aircraft. • A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings. The Wright brothers' Wright Flyer used a biplane design, as did most aircraft in the early years of aviation. • A triplane is a fixed-wing aircraft equipped with three sets of wings, each roughly the same size and mounted one above the other. The best-known triplane is Fokker Dr.I during WW1.
WORLD WAR 1 1914-1918 (4yrs)
WW1: The Era of Military Aircraft • Aircraft use for military . • Increased demand for military aircrafts, more powerful motors and larger aircrafts were developed. • Aerodynamic fuselage design; monoplane, biplane and triplane designs are all considered viable aircraft.
WW 1 Era is the Key Developments • World War 1 saw the rise of the aircraft as a weapon system and the changing face of war. • The aircraft changed the modern battlefield The Sopwith Camel was one of the best-known British fighter airplanes of World War I. De Havilland DH-4 biplane, a British-designed two-seater bomber mass-produced for use in World War I.
World War One Aircrafts During WW 1, pilots became famous for their air to air combats, the most well-known is Red Baron, who shot down 80 planes in air to air combat with several different planes. Fokker Dr.I replica at the ILA 2006, the "Red Baron" triplane
Aviation During WW 1: 1914-1918 1916: William Boeing'sfascination with aviation leads to the creation of his own airplane manufacturing business. Over the next several decades, the company would evolve into the world's largest commercial airline manufacturer. 1918: The United States officially establishes air mail servicewith flights between New York City, Philadelphia and Washington D.C.
GOLDEN AGE 1919-1938
Golden Age After WW1: (1919-1938) • Aviation focus on Airmail Services • Birth of the Airlines • Advancement in aircraft technology. • Birth of Commercial Aviation • Birth of Air Traffic Control • Charles Lindbergh Made an Historic Flight • Birth of Instrument Flying
Air mail services • It was the Post Office and airmail delivery that gave the commercial airlines their true start. • In the early part of the 20th century, the Post Office had used mostly railroads to transport mail between cities. • By 1925, only seven years after the first official airmail flight, U.S. Post Office airplanes were delivering 14 million letters and packages a year and were maintaining regular flight schedules.
1925: Contract Act of 1925 (Kelly Act) • Congress passes the Air Mail Act of 1925 (also known as the Kelly Act), permitting the government to hire private air carriers to deliver the mail. • The government contracts that were subsequently awarded helped determine which airlines would dominate commercial aviation - airlines including United Airlines, American Airlines and TWA.
Question • Even during the initial stage, civil aircraft were used mostly to carry post materials. But the pilots dared not fly at night due to obvious reasons. What were the reasons? How did the problems solved?
1921: Birth of Rotating Beacons • In 1921, the Army deployed rotating beacons in a line between Columbus and Dayton, Ohio, a distance of about 80 miles. The beacons, visible to pilots at 10-second intervals, made it possible to fly the route at night Rotating light beacon
Intermediate Airfield Building of the airways • Airmail routes become Airways • Lighted airway beacons—every 10 miles (1926) • Intermediate Airfields - every 50 miles • Airway Communication Stations (1928) • No ATC
Golden Age - Between Wars • Large advancement in aircraft technology. • Wood and canvas converts to aluminums. • Engine development, In-line water cooled gasoline engines convert to rotary air cooled engines (increase propulsive power). • After WWI, experienced fighter pilots were eager to show off their new skills. • Air shows sprang up around the country, with air races and acrobatic stunts.
1926: Ford’s Trimotor • ‘Ford Trimotor’ also called as the “Tin Goose”. • Can carried 12/13 passengers and could fly up 6,000 feet (1,829 kilometre), but it’s climb to that altitude was slow, level off, bump around, and drop repeatedly before it reached its cruising altitude. • With no air conditioning and little heating, the plane was hot in summer and cold in winter, • With no circulation system, its environment was made even more unpleasant by the smell of hot oil and metal, leather seats, and disinfectant used to clean up after airsick passengers. • Opening a window was the only way to escape the smell.
Airline Growth • 1927: Long-distance passenger craft developed that had constant radio contact with the ground. • The Lockheed Vega takes to the skies. Allan Lockheed finally finds success with the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation.
Six people tried to do it but all died. However, Charles Lindbergh flew solo across the Atlantic ocean successfully. His journey cover 3,610 miles (5,815km) and took about 33 and 1/2 hours. 1927: Charles LindberghFirst flying across the Atlantic ocean (New York-Paris) in using the Spirit of St. Louis
Question • Flying based on concept of “See and Avoid” and with no any help of flying instruments, What could be the problems faced by Lindbergh during his historic flight (33 and ½ hours)?
First airport controller (1929) Archie League at St. Louis Airport, 1929 1929-Birth of Air Traffic Control (ATC)
Charles Lindbergh Impact • Aviation became a more established. • Aviation becomes respectable and the popular Lindbergh goes on world tours to promote aviation and Pan-American Airways.
1934: Amelia Earhartand Lockheed Electra 10" mysteriously disappearedwhile on a "round the world flight.
1933: Boeing 247: First of the modern airliners • (Boeing 247) developed. It could carry 13 passengers and travel at 155 mph.
Donald Douglas, the first - and youngest - aeronautical engineers in America The company's first successful aircraft, the Cloudster, made its first flight on February 24, 1921. Later that year, the company would change its name to simply The Douglas Company.
DC-3 Douglas Airplane: Early Commercial Aviation • (1933): DC-2,12 passengers • (1935): DC-3, 21 passengers DC-3
DC-3first aircraft to make money • In 1935, DC-3first aircraft to make money carrying passengers rather than mail. • It seated 21 passengers and its 1,000 horsepower engine made it possible to fly coast to coast in 16 hours. • It proved air transport could be profitable. • 90% of air traffic was flying on these aircraft by 1940.
Cleveland Airport, Ohio Birth of Air Traffic Control1929-1933 • Light gun • Control tower • First radio-equipped control tower—Cleveland (1930)
Four-course range station Birth of Instrument Flying • Jimmy Doolittle’s first “blind flight” (September 24, 1929) • LFR (Low Frequency Radio Range) Four-Course Navigation System (early 30s) First instrument airways. The end of “see and avoid”