Changes at the Turn of the Century How does technology & education change America?
Technology in the City • Electric Transit: Electrified streetcars, trains & subways allow people to move efficiently • Louis Sullivan designs the skyscrapers: tall, narrow buildings w/ elevators & internal steel skeletons ● Engineering & Urban Planning: Steel cabled bridges and more open space in the city
New Technologies • Wright Bro’s invent airplane – aviation industry will begin • Better printing press - cheaper and faster distribution of newspapers and other print • George Eastman introduces roll film & the Kodak camera
Expanding Public Education • By 1900, US sees the growth of High Schools: with expanded curriculum expanded include science, civics, and social studies • Mandatory schooling for children age 8-14 • HS also offer vocational courses for males: drafting, carpentry, mechanics, clerical courses for females: typing, short hand, filing • Literacy increases from 80%in 1870 to 95% by 1920
An Unequal Education • Immigrants encouraged to go to school to quickly become “Americanized” , adults go to night school to learn English • Racial Discrimination: Most African Americans excluded from public secondary education (HS), attend “black schools” for K-8 -Expanding Higher Education – more colleges admit students -African-Americans must attend own universities. Birth of the “Black College” (Howard, Grambling) but only 3% of blacks attend
Mass Culture - Leisure • Bicycling, tennis, spectator sports (boxing & baseball) popular • Late 1880s: Eight hour workday gives people more free time • 1883: Chicago Exposition features first Ferris Wheel, 1884 Coney Island first rollercoaster (Amusement Parks born) • Vaudeville & Ragtime are popular entertainment Spread of Mass Culture • Pulitzer & Hearst begin daily newspapers • 1890:First department store & chain store (FW Woolworth) open • Mailed catalogs allow purchases w/o leaving house