CHAPTER Life at the Turn of the Century 16 Overview Time Lines 1 Science and Urban Life SECTION 2 Education and Culture SECTION 3 Segregation and Discrimination SECTION 4 Dawn of Mass Culture SECTION Chapter Assessment Transparencies
THEMES IN CHAPTER 16 Science and Technology Immigration and Migration Civil Rights Women in America CHAPTER Life at the Turn of the Century 16 HOME “Every nation should be judged by the best it has been able to produce, not by the worst.” James Weldon Johnson, lawyer and writer
What do you know? • What do you already know about American life a hundred years ago? How did Americans work and play? What new inventions were changing people’s ways of life? Read the quote above and answer the following: • Do you agree with the quotation? Why or why not? • If you applied the quotation to America today, what would you offer as the best or worst? CHAPTER Life at the Turn of the Century 16 HOME “Every nation should be judged by the best it has been able to produce, not by the worst.” James Weldon Johnson, lawyer and writer
1879F.W. Woolworth opens his “five-and-ten-cent” store. 1883Construction of the Brooklyn Bridge is completed. 1884Mark Twain publishes The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. 1891Ida B. Wells crusades against lynching. James Naismith invents basketball. 1903The Wright Brothers successfully complete the first airplane flight. W.E.B. Du Bois publishes The Souls of Black Folk. 1915D.W. Griffith’s epic film, The Birth of a Nation, is released. CHAPTER Time Line 16 HOME The United States
1882Triple Alliance between Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Germany is formed. 1884A 14-nation conference on the division of Africa is held in Berlin. 1894The African nation of Uganda becomes a British protectorate. 1900German psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud publishes The Interpretation of Dreams. 1904Russo-Japanese War breaks out. 1910Japan annexes Korea. 1914World War I begins in Europe. CHAPTER Time Line 16 HOME The World
Learn About changes in education and the promotion of high culture. To Understand how these developments affected America’s changing identity. SECTION 2 Education and Culture HOME
SECTION 2 Education and Culture HOME Key Idea The impulses of moral uplift and economic necessity spur changes in education, a rise in national literacy, and the promotion of high culture.
Expanding Public Education • From 1865-1895 • 8-14 year olds attended 12-16 weeks • Reading, Writing, Math • Strict rules (Personal Voice Page 489) • Kindergartens go from 200 in 1880 to over 3000 in 1900 • In 1880 62% of white children but only 34% of black children attended elementary schools • Chart of Page 489
Growth of High schools • New Industrial age plus new economy demanded new work force • By 1900 more than 500,000 students in high schools • Curriculum expanded to science, civics, and social studies • In 1890 fewer than 1% of African Americans attended high school by 1910 only 3-4% • Immigrants were encouraged to attended free public schools to “Americanize” them • Not all immigrants agreed as they favored their native language over English • Catholics upset with reading of King James Bible…start their own private/religious based schools
Expanding Higher Education • Changes in Universities • Research schools, law schools, and medical schools were established • Booker T. Washington: prominent African American who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society • Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute: equipped African Americans with teaching diplomas and useful skills in agricultural, domestic, or mechanical work • W.E.B. Du Bois: first African American to receive a doctorate from Harvard • Niagara Movement: Blacks should seek a liberal arts education so African American communities would have well-educated leaders • “talented tenth” educated African Americans that should lead the movement
DEVELOPMENT RESULT Compulsory education laws Increase in the number of kindergartens Growth of high schools Discrimination against African Americans New curricula SECTION 2 Education and Culture HOME 2 Section Assessment SUMMARIZING What were some major educational developments from the turn of the century and what were their results? Literacy increased. Immigrants became “Americanized.” College enrollments increased. All-black colleges founded. Led to advances in science and medicine.
DEVELOPING HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Compare the impact of museums, libraries, and other cultural institutions on early-20th-century society with their impact on today’s society. THINK ABOUT • the audience museums and libraries reached then and now • the role of museums and libraries in modern mass culture then and now SECTION 2 Education and Culture HOME 2 Section Assessment
HYPOTHESIZING How might the economy and culture of the United States have been different without the expansion of public schools? THINK ABOUT • the goals of public schools and whether those goals have been met • why people supported expanding public education • the impact of public schools on the development of private schools SECTION 2 Education and Culture HOME 2 Section Assessment
Learn About racial tensions in the late 19th century. To Understand the persistence of racial discrimination in America. SECTION 3 Segregation and Discrimination HOME
SECTION 3 Segregation and Discrimination HOME Key Idea African Americans lead the fight against institutionalized racism in the form of voting restrictions and Jim Crow laws.
African Americans Fight Legal Discrimination • Ida B. Wells: African American reporter • 3 friends were lynched…dedicated her life to abolishing lynching • Voting Restrictions in Southern States • 1. literacy tests: African Americans asked harder questions or given test in foreign language • 2. poll tax: annual tax that had to be paid in order to vote • Several farmers too poor to pay-including some white farmers • 3. Grandfather clause: if a man failed his literacy test or could not afford the poll tax he was still allowed to vote if he, his father, or his grandfather had been eligible to vote before January 1, 1867
Jim Crow Laws • Jim Crow Laws: racial segregation laws in Southern states passed to separated white and black people in public and private facilities • Took effect in schools, hospitals, parks, restaurants, transportation systems, etc… • Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 • Supreme Court ruled that the separation of races in public accommodations was legal and did not violate the 14th Amendment • Established “separate but equal” • Legalized racial segregation for almost 60 years
Turn-of-the Century race relation • Racial Etiquette: informal rules and customs that regulated relationships between whites and blacks • EX. Blacks and whites never shook hands-shaking hands implies equality, blacks had to yield the sidewalk to white pedestrians, black men always had to remove their hats for whites • Could face violence and even death by lynching • Discrimination existed in both North and South but the rules of segregation were more strict and pervasive in the South
Discrimination in the West • West consisted of many different ethnic backgrounds • People lived and worked next to each other creating racial tension • Mexican Workers: Late 1800’s railroads hired more Mexicans than any other ethnic group in the Southwest (Chinese Exclusion Act) • 1902 National Reclamation Act: gave government money for irrigation projects • Mexican workers became the major labor force • Debt Peonage: system that bound laborers into slavery in order to work off a debt to the employer
Legal Issues • Literacy tests • Poll tax • Jim Crow laws • Segregated schools • Plessy v. Ferguson • People • Ida B. Wells • Booker T. Washington • W.E.B. Du Bois SECTION 3 Segregation and Discrimination HOME 3 Section Assessment SUMMARIZING What people, places, legal issues, and events related to discrimination at the turn of the century? RACIAL DISCRIMINATION • Places • The Southwest • (Mexican peonage) • California (the • Chinese) • Events • Lynchings • Wells’s anti-lynching • campaign
IDENTIFYING PROBLEMS Explain how segregation and discrimination affected the lives of African Americans at the turn of the century. SECTION 3 Segregation and Discrimination HOME 33 Section Assessment
CONTRASTING How did the challenges and opportunities for Mexicans in the United States differ from those of African Americans? THINK ABOUT • the type of work each group did • the wages paid to each group • the effects of government policies on each group SECTION 3 Segregation and Discrimination HOME 3 Section Assessment
16 Chapter Assessment HOME 1. How did new technology promote urban growth around the turn of the century? 2. In what ways did methods of communication improve in the late 19th and early 20th centuries? 3. How did public schools change during the late 19th century? 4. Why did some immigrants oppose sending their children to public schools around the turn of the century? 5. How were the paintings of Thomas Eakins and the literature of Mark Twain similar?
16 Chapter Assessment HOME 6. In what ways was racial discrimination supported by federal government actions and policies? 7. How did Mexicans help make the Southwest prosperous in the late 19th century? 8. Why did a mass culture develop in the United States in the late 19th century? 9. What leisure activities flourished at the turn of the century? 10. What innovations in retail methods changed how Americans shopped during this time period?