SUN SETS The sun has actually already set when we observe it. The light refracts due to the earths atmosphere.
STARS Stars twinkle because their light passes through several miles of Earth's atmosphere. A combination of refraction and moving air masses cause a twinkle effect.
HUBBLE TELESCOPE • The Hubble telescope is placed above the earths atmosphere to reduce refraction and atmospheric effects when photographing stars, planets and other celestial bodies.
Sky • The color of the sky is from light scattering off suspended particles in the atmosphere. When the sun is higher (day) it refracts towards blue colors. Lower the sky produces red and orange.
RAINBOWS Water droplets refract different colored light at different angles. The light is reflected from the opposite side of the droplet and refracted again separating the colors more.
RAINBOWS • The person observing the rainbow must be at 42 degrees with the arc and have the sun behind them. • A double rainbow is a reflection of the first. The color bands of the second are reversed.
Rainbows • All rainbows are actually circular and we see them as being approximately 180 degrees due to us being on the ground. * There is no pot of gold at the end of the rainbow.
MIRAGE This looks like a beach on a large body of water. Its actually an airport. Warm air is less dense than cool air and refracts light away from the surface
MIRAGE Because light travels in a straight line, we think the effect indicates something reflective on the road like water or oil.