Honors World History Chapter 12: Industrialization and Nationalism Curt, Bridget, Amy Leigh, Mark Andrew Q—13.4 Life in the Industrial Age (1800–1914)
Age of Industry: Chapter 12.1 Living From the Land
Introduction to industry • The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain during the late 1700s. • Changes in the way land was used and new farming methods increased productivity. • Skilled inventors developed new technology, and entrepreneurs with money invested in new or expanded ventures.
The middle class • Farmers displaced by rural changes went to the cities to find work in factories. • The availability of such natural resources as coal, iron, and water power led to the use of power-driven machines in factories. • Industrialization spread to the rest of Europe and to North America, creating a new social order. • A growing middle class of prosperous factory owners and managers began to exert political power, while an even larger working class pressed for reforms to improve working conditions and their daily lives.
Village Life • Village life was harsh, people mostly stayed in their villages too. • Private and public lands were not fenced off or separated from the rest of the land. • Roads were not effectively built, they were just dirt paths that turned to mud when it rained. • Everyone on a farm worked hard because it was life back then. • Everyone in the family from children to the husband and wife contributed something on the farm.
Industrialization and Nationalism, 1800–1870 • The Industrial Revolution and a wave of liberal nationalist revolutions transformed Europe during the nineteenth century. A weakened old order gave way, and a number of unified European states emerged. • Canada gained its independence, and the northern and southern United States reunited after a bloody civil war.
The Industrial Revolution • The Industrial Revolution began in the late eighteenth century and turned Great Britain into the first and the richest industrialized nation. A series of technological advances caused Great Britain to become a leader in the production of cotton, coal, and iron. After the introduction of the first steam-powered locomotives, railroad tracks were laid across Great Britain, reducing the cost of shipping goods. The Industrial Revolution spread to Europe and North America. In the United States, the railroad made it possible to sell manufactured goods from the Northeast across the country. The Industrial Revolution had a tremendous social impact in Europe. Cities grew quickly, and an industrial middle class emerged. The industrial working class, meanwhile, dealt with wretched working conditions. These conditions gave rise to socialism, a movement aimed at improving working conditions through government control of the means of production.
The Beginnings of Change Chapter 12 Section 2
Enclosure Movement • Open field system- system where British farmers had planted crops and kept livestock on unfenced private and public lands for hundreds of years • Landowners felt that larger farms with enclosed fields would increase farming efficiency and productivity • Enclosure Movement-practice of fencing or enclosing common lands into individual holdings • Parliament supported this and passed laws that allowed landowners to take over and fence off private and common lands • Many small farmers dependent on village lands were forced to move to towns and cities to find work
Landowners practiced new, more efficient farming methods • To raise crop yields, they mixed different kinds of soil and used new crop rotation systems • Crop Rotation-the practice of alternating crops of different kinds to preserve soil fertility • Charles Townshend- urged the growing of turnips to enrich exhausted soil • Another reformer, Robert Bakewell, bred stronger horses for farm work and fatter sheep and cattle for meat • JethroTull-invented the seed drill that enabled farmers to plant seeds in orderly rows
Great Britain Leads the Way Money and Industry Capital-money to invest in labor, machines, and raw materials that is essential for the growth of industry By investing in growing industries, the aristocracy and middle class had a good chance of making a profit Parliament encouraged investment by passing laws that helped the growing businesses • This agriculture revolution helped Great Britain to lead the Industrial Revolution • Successful farming business allowed landowners to invest money in growing industries • Many displaced farmers became industrial workers The four factors of economics are: land, labour, capital, and entrepreneurship
Great Britain Leads the Way cont. Natural Resources Large Labor Supply In one century, England’s population nearly doubled Improvements in farming lead to increased availability of food better, more nutritious food led to people living longer and healthier lives Changes in farming lead to increased supply of industrial workers Entrepreneurs-businesspeople who set up industries by bringing together capital, labor, and new industrial inventions • Britain’s wealth included its rich supply of natural resources • Water provided power for developing industries and transported raw materials and finished goods • Britain also had huge supplies of coal, the principle raw material of the Industrial Revolution • Produced iron and steel for machinery and helped to fuel industry
English:Work by Ford Madox Brown, 1852-63 Oil on canvas. Original in the Manchester City Art Galleries
Growing Textile Industry Advances in Machinery Producing More Cloth Edmund Cartwright- developed the power loom to solve the shortage of weavers The new inventions created a growing need for raw cotton (American) Eli Whitney- developed the cotton gin that cleaned cotton 50 times faster than one person could • John Kay- improved the loom with the flying shuttle • James Hargeaves- invented a more efficient spinning machine called the spinning jenny • Richard Arkwright-developed the water frame-a huge spinning machine that ran continually on waterpower • Samuel Crompton- produce the spinning mule by combining features of the spinning jenny and the water frame
Flying shuttle WaterFrame Spinning Jenny PowerLoom SpinningMule CottonGin
The Factory System • Factory System- organized method of production that brought workers and machines together under control of managers • Waterways powered machines and provided transportation for raw materials and finished cloth • As the factory system spread, manufacturers required more power than horses and water could provide • James Watt- designed an efficient steam engine* • Steam engines allowed factories that had to close down when water froze or flowed too low to run continuously • The steam engine enabled factories to be built far from waterways
Industrial Developments • The use of factory machinery increased demand for iron and steel • Henry Bessemerand William Kelly-developed methods to inexpensively produce steel from iron • At the same time, people worked to advanced transportation systems throughout Europe and the US • Improvements began when private companies began building and paving roads • John McAdamand Thomas Telford- further advanced road making: • better drainage systems and • the use of layers of crushed rock • Water transportation also improved: in 1761, British workers dug one of the first modern canals • Soon, a canal building craze began in both Europe and the US • A combination of steam power and steel would soon revolutionize both land and water transportation • In 1801, Richard Trevithick first brought steam-powered travel to land with a steam-powered carriage that ran on wheels and three years later, a steam locomotive that ran on rails • In 1807, Robert Fulton designed the first practical steamboat • Railroads and steamboats laid the foundations for a global economy and opened new forms of investment
Review • Enclosure Movement-practice of fencing or enclosing common lands into individual holdings • Crop Rotation-the practice of alternating crops of different kinds to preserve soil fertility • Charles Townshend-urged the growth of turnips to enrich exhausted soil • JethroTull-seed drill • John Kay- flying shuttle • James Hargeaves- spinning jenny • Richard Arkwright-water frame • Samuel Crompton-spinning mule • Edmund Cartwright- power loom • Eli Whitney- cotton gin • Factory System- production of goods in factory through the use of machines and a large number of workers • James Watt- steam engine • Henry Bessemer & William Kelly-developed methods to cheaply produce steel from iron • John McAdam& Thomas Telford- better drainage systems and the use of layers of crushed rock • Robert Fulton-steamboat
1 Centers of Industry
The Growth of Industry • Chapter 12, Section 3 • Amy Leigh Hufford
Samuel Slater • Tall, ruddy young British worker on a ship bound for New York. • A farmer was his listed occupation but he was actually a smuggler, stealing a valuable British commodity-industrial knowledge-to make money in America. • Knew how to build an industrial spinning wheeland introduced it to the US.
Great Britain • Most Productive Country in the World • Kept technology secret • Parliament passed laws restricting the flow of machines and skilled workers to other countries • Until 1825, the law that Slater ignored prohibited craftspeople from moving to other countries • Mercenaries and technicians left Great Britain, carrying industrial knowledge with them
Britain gave up trying to guard its industrial monopoly • British industrialists saw that they could make money by spreading the Industrial Revolution to other countries • Large-scale manufacturing based on the factory system was not as successful in other lands. The major exceptions were France, Germany, and the US • Set up factories in Europe, supplying capital (money), equipment, and technical staff. • earned Great Britain the title“The Workshop of the World” • Railroads • Construction was funded in India, Latin America, and North America by financiers • Financiers were people concerned with the management of large amounts of money on behalf of governments or other large organizations.
1 Technology and Industry The marriage of science, technology, and industry spurred economic growth. To improve efficiency, manufacturers designed products with interchangeable parts. They also introduced the assembly line. STEEL CHEMICALS ELECTRICITY Henry Bessemer developed a process to produce stronger steel. Steel quickly became the major material used in tools, bridges, and railroads. Alessandro Volta developed the first battery. Michael Faraday created the first electric motor and the first dynamo, a machine that generates electricity. Thomas Edison made the first electric light bulb. Chemists created hundreds of new products. New chemical fertilizers led to increased food production. Alfred Nobel invented dynamite.
Capitalism • Capitalism was a major factor in spurring industrial growth. It was an economic system in which individuals and private firms, not the government, own the means of production, including land, machinery, and the workplace.In a capitalist system, individuals decide how they can make a profit and determine business practices accordingly • Industrialists practiced industrial capitalism which involved continually expanding factories or investing in new businesses. After investing in a factory, capitalists used profits to hire more workers and buy more raw materials and new machines. • Mass Production: the production of huge quantities of identical goods • Manufacturers invested in machines to replace more costly human labor. Machines were fast working and precise and enabled industrialists to mass-produce
Eli Whitney • Eli Whitney designed and invented the cotton gin by April 1793. Thecotton gin was a machine that automated the separation of cottonseed from the short-staple cotton fiber. He contributed to the concept of interchangeable partsand increased factory production. These interchangeable parts were machine-made parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged.
Frederick Taylor • Encouraged manufacturers to divide tasks into detailed and specific segments of step-by-step procedure • Using his plan, industrialists devised a division of labor: • Each worker performed a specialized task on a product as it moved by on a conveyor belt • That worker would then return the product to the next belt where it continued down the line to the next worker. This was called theassembly line.
Henry FordHenry Ford used the assembly line methods to produce his Model T automobiles. As he produced greater quantities of his cars, the cost of producing each car fell, allowing him to drop the price. This enabled millions of people to buy cars.
Organizing Business As production increased, industrial leaders developed ways to manage the growing business world and to ensure a continual flow of capital for business expansion. • A partnership was a business organization involving two or more entrepreneurs who can raise more capital and take on more business than if each had gone into business alone. • Partners share management, responsibility, and liability. • Corporations are business organizations owned by stockholders who buy shares in a company. The stockholders vote on major decisions concerning the corporations. Shares decrease or increase in value depending on the profits earned by the company. • Corporations became one of the best ways to manage new businesses. The People Formed Partnerships... ...and then They Formed Corporations
Business Cycles • Individual businesses concentrated on producing a particular kind of product. This increase in specialization made growing industries dependent on each other: when one industry did well, so did the others. The economic fate of a country came to rest on business cycles. • Business cycles were alternating periods of business expansion and decline and follow a certain sequence. • Lowest point of a business cycle-a depression, which is characterized by bank failures and/or widespread unemployment. • Most people suffered during “bust” periods and prospered during peaks.
Amateur Inventors • Amateur Inventors relied heavily on trial and error. • Produced the most industrial advances at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. • By the late 1800s, manufacturers began to apply more scientific findings to their businesses.
Electricity Scientists devised ways to harness electrical power and electricity replaced coal as the major source of industrial fuel.
Michael Faraday Thomas Edison
Energy & Engines Gottlieb Daimler • The Industrial Revolution surged forward with advances in engines. These inventions ushered in the age of the motor car: German engineer Redesigned the internal combustion engine Now runs on gasoline Produced enough power to propel vehicles and boats Rudolf Diesel German engineer Developed an oil-burning internal-combustion engine Could run industrial plants, ocean liners, and locomotives Ferdinand von Zeppelin Streamlined the dirigible with a gasoline engine A dirigible was a 40-year-old balloon-like invention that could carry passengers
1 Advances in Transportation and Communication During the second Industrial Revolution, transportation and communication were transformed by technology. • COMMUNICATION • Samuel Morse developed the telegraph. • Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone. • Guglielmo Marconi invented the radio. • TRANSPORTATION • Steamships replaced sailing ships. • Rail lines connected inland cities and seaports, mining regions and industrial centers. • Nikolaus Otto invented a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine. • Karl Benz patented the first automobile. • Rudolf Diesel invented the diesel engine • Henry Ford began mass producing cars. • Orville and Wilbur Wright designed and flew the first airplane.
Taking Flight • Wilbur and Orville Wright achieved success in 1903 at Kitty Hawk with the first flight of a motorized airplane. It covered a distance of 120 feet. Only five years later they flew their wooden airplane 100 miles. New airplanes and other vehicles needed a steady supply of fuel for power and rubber for tires and other parts. Petroleum and rubber industries skyrocketed and innovations in transportation, communications, and electricity changed the American lifestyle forever.
1 The Rise of Big Business New technologies required the investment of large amounts of money. To obtain capital, entrepreneurs sold stock, or shares in their companies, to investors. Large-scale companies formed corporations, businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock. Powerful business leaders created monopolies and trusts, huge corporate structures that controlled entire industries or areas of the economy. Sometimes a group of businesses joined forces and formed a cartel, an association to fix prices, set production quotas, or control markets.
The Rise of the Middle Class • More jobs came along with successful owners • Education became a key idea along with people becoming involved in politics
Middle-Class Lifestyles • The stereotype of men go out to work and the women stayed home to clean and raise the children developed during this period • Boys sent to school to learn business or trade and typically took father’s position or worked in family business • Girls stayed at home learning to cook, sew and all the workings of a household
2 The World of Cities • What was the impact of medical advances in the late 1800s? • How had cities changed by 1900? • How did working-class struggles lead to improved conditions for workers?
2 City Life As industrialization progressed, cities came to dominate the West. At the same time, city life underwent dramatic changes. • Settlement patterns shifted: the rich lived in pleasant neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city, while the poor crowded into slums near the city center. • Paved streets, gas lamps, organized police forces, and expanded fire protection made cities safer and more liveable. • Architects began building soaring skyscrapers made of steel. • Sewage systems improved public health.
Lives of the Working Class • Class size increased • Luxuries became available • No longer made or grew what the family needed
At the Mercy of Machinery • As competition increased between factories, work conditions decreased • Workers spent between 10-14 hours in the factories a day • Women made less than half of men and children made even less
2 Working-Class Struggles Workers protested to improve the harsh conditions of industrial life. At first, business owners tried to silence protesters, strikes and unions were illegal, and demonstrations were crushed. By mid-century, workers slowly began to make progress: • Workers formed mutual-aid societies, self-help groups to aid sick or injured workers. • Workers won the right to organize unions. • Governments passed laws to regulate working conditions. Social unionism—vote in guys who will pass pro-union laws. • Governments established old-age pensions and disability insurance. • The standard of livingimproved.
Workers’ Lives • Working children didn’t go to school, worked long hours and suffered from diseases and injuries from the intense work. • Working offered new independence for women • Owners of mill often controlled of the worker’s lives
Workers Unite • Developed labor unions that demanded fair wages and tolerable working conditions • Labor unions are made up of workers of a trade