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Grammar Mini Lesson

Grammar Mini Lesson

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Grammar Mini Lesson

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  1. Grammar Mini Lesson Modifying Phrases: Prepositional Phrases Appositive Phrases Participial Phrases Infinitive Phrases

  2. What is a phrase? • A phrase is a group of related words that does notinclude a subject and a verb. • There are several kinds of phrases…

  3. Prepositional Phrase • Always begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun. • Prepositional phrases are modifying phrases. • Prepositional phrases can answer questions like: • When: "in forty minutes" “after the show” • Where: "in the sun” “to the mall”

  4. Check out all these examples… The hills across the valley of the Ebro were long and white. On this side there was no shade and no trees and the station was between two lines of rails in the sun. The American and the girl with him sat at a table in the shade, outside the building. It was very hot and the express from Barcelona would come in forty minutes. (Ernest Hemingway)

  5. Check out all these examples… The hills across the valleyof the Ebro were long and white. On this side there was no shade and no trees and the station was between two lines of rails in the sun. The American and the girl with him sat at a table in the shade, outside the building. It was very hot and the express from Barcelona would come in forty minutes. (Ernest Hemingway)

  6. Participial Phrase • Verb phrase which include a verb (usually ending in –ing or –ed) and its modifiers. • Participial phrases are modifying phrases. • Participial phrase with a verb ending in –ing: • The stone steps, having been worn down by generations of students, needed to be replaced. • Participial phrase with a verb ending in –ed: • Burned on each side, the toast was not edible. • Participial phrase with an irregular verb: • The pond, frozen over since early December, is now safe for ice-skating.

  7. Some more examples… • Working around the clock, the firefighters finally put out the last of the California brush fires. • Removing his coat, Jack rushed to the river • Shoved in the back of his closet, the sweaty gym socks gave off a foul odor. • The rack of ribs, glazed with barbecue sauce, lay nestled next to a pile of sweet coleslaw. • Stuck on the glue trap, the mouse squealed and squirmed until his life expired.

  8. Some more examples… • Working around the clock, the firefighters finally put out the last of the California brush fires. • Removing his coat, Jack rushed to the river • Shoved in the back of his closet, the sweaty gym socks gave off a foul odor. • The rack of ribs, glazed with barbecue sauce, lay nestled next to a pile of sweet coleslaw. • Stuck on the glue trap, the mouse squealed and squirmed until his life expired.

  9. Appositive Phrase • A phrase that renames or identifies a word that comes before it. • An appositive phrase is a modifying phrase. • If it is in the middle of the sentence, it will be set off with commas. • My brother's car,a sporty red convertible, is the envy of my friends. • John Kennedy,the popular US president, was known for his eloquent and inspirational speeches.

  10. Some more examples… • The chief surgeon, an expert in organ-transplant procedures, took her nephew on a hospital tour. • My favorite teacher, a fine chess player, has won several state-level tournaments. • The best exercise, walking briskly, is also the least expensive.

  11. Some more examples… • The chief surgeon, an expert in organ-transplant procedures, took her nephew on a hospital tour. • My favorite teacher, a fine chess player, has won several state-level tournaments. • The best exercise, walking briskly, is also the least expensive.

  12. Infinitives Infinitive Phrases(copy the underlined words on the back of your notes packet) • Infinitive is a verb form, usually begins with the word “to” and functions as a • noun, an adjective, or an adverb. • Example: • Eileen Collins had a goal to pursue. • In 1995, Collins became the first female pilot to command a space mission

  13. Check your understanding: • Thirty-eight years after becoming NASA’s first female astronaut candidate, Jerrie Cobb has emerged from the Amazon jungle to crusade for the space shot she was promised. • John Glenn’s return to orbit…at age 77 have given Cobb—and her supporters—hope. “I would give my life to fly in space. I really would ,” says Cobb.

  14. Thirty-eight years after becoming NASA’s first female astronaut candidate, Jerrie Cobb has emerged from the Amazon jungle to crusade for the space shot she was promised. John Glenn’s return to orbit…at age 77 prepositional phrase have given Cobb—and her supporters—hope. “I would give my life to fly in space. I really would ,” says Cobb.

  15. InfinitiveInfinitive Phrases • Infinitive is a verb form, usually begins with the word “to” and functions as a n • Noun, an adjective, or an adverb. • Example: • Eileen Collins had a goal to pursue. • In 1995, Collins became the first female pilot to command a space mission.

  16. Check your understanding: • Thirty-eight years after becoming NASA’s first female astronaut candidate, Jerrie Cobb has emerged from the Amazon jungle to crusade for the space shot she was promised. • John Glenn’s return to orbit…at age 77 have given Cobb—and her supporters—hope. “I would give my life to fly in space. I really would ,” says Cobb.

  17. Thirty-eight years after becoming NASA’s first female astronaut candidate, Jerrie Cobb has emerged from the Amazon jungle to crusade for the space shot she was promised. • John Glenn’s return to orbit…at age 77 have given Cobb—and her supporters—hope. “I would give my life to fly in space. I really would ,” says Cobb.