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8th Grade, 2009

8th Grade, 2009. Neurology By: Amanda Wilkinson. Neuropsychology. Neuropsychology was first recorded being studied back to around 1700 B.C. Neuropsychology was also first talked about in record, by Rene Descartes, who lived from 1596 to 1650.

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8th Grade, 2009

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  1. 8th Grade, 2009 Neurology By: Amanda Wilkinson

  2. Neuropsychology • Neuropsychology was first recorded being studied back to around 1700 B.C. • Neuropsychology was also first talked about in record, by Rene Descartes, who lived from 1596 to 1650. • Descartes thought movements were caused by ‘animal spirits’ that moved through the body Rene Descartes

  3. Rene Descartes Continued... • Even though Descartes’ ideas were grand, little did he know a later book called, Anatomy of the Brain, would be published in 1664, and would prove his theory incorrect. • Anatomy of the Brain was published by a man named Thomas Willis.

  4. Thomas Willis CSF= Cerebro Spinal Fluid • Thomas Willis thought the brain by itself had control over behavior, when everyone else thought CSF or ventricles had control. • Willis discovered the two types of tissue matter: gray and white matter. Ventricles are each of the four connected fluid-filled cavities in the center of the brain. Thomas Willis

  5. The Circle of Willis • In addition to his novel, Anatomy Of The Brain, Thomas Willis was also the first person to discover the Circle of Willis. • The Circle of Willis delivers blood throughout all parts of the brain. No portion of the brain could even function without The Circle of Willis. • Roughly, only 34.5% of people have a complete Circle. However, having a complete Circle of Willis will help the owner avoid a stroke.

  6. Neurosurgery • Neurosurgery today, has benefited from advances in computer assisted imaging, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography,magnetoencephalography, and the development of stereotactic surgery. • The range of neurosurgery has become larger as new diagnostic techniques let surgeons preform more complicated surgeries.

  7. Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) • When a man named Lewandowsky was studying potassium ferrocyanide injection into the brain in 1900, he was the first to use the term Blood-Brain Barrier. Although he called it, “Bluthirnschranke.” • Lewandowsky changed the thoughts of many scientists, and brought about the idea of a barrier between blood and the brain. Also, between blood and CSF • In 1981, Stewart and Wiley first discovered the tight edges and originality of the B.B.B. by experimenting on embryonic chick gut and embryonic quail brain.

  8. The Sylvian Fissure • In 1641, Franciscus Sylvius discovered the deep cleft parting the temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes of the brain. This cleft is now known as the Sylvian Fissure. <---The Sylvian Fissure

  9. Credits • O'B, Toby. "Rene Descartes." Inner Toob. 16 Dec. 2008. Blogspot. 24 Apr. 2009 <http://toobworld.blogspot.com/2008_11_09_archive.html>. • Darty, Mark. "Brain Model Tutorial." Brain Model Tutorial. University of Central Florida. 28 Apr. 2009 <http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/%7EBrainmd1/brmodelc.gif>. • Loggan, D. C. "Willis, Thomas." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Ed. G. Vertue. 1742. Archiv fur Kunst und Geschichte, Berlin. 28 Apr. 2009 <http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/32/40532-004-7E058048.jpg>. • "Neurosurgery." HADASSAH UK medical excellence beyond boundaries. Registered UK Charity No. 1040848. 28 Apr. 2009 <http://www.hadassahuk.org/gallery.asp>. • Culham, Jody. "Sylvian Fissure." FMRI 4 Newbies. Aug. 2007. 28 Apr. 2009 <http://psychology.uwo.ca/fmri4newbies/>. • Aracuano. "File: Circle of Willis it.svg." Wikimedia Commons. 24 Mar. 2008. Wikipedia. 28 Apr. 2009 <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Circle_of_Willis_it.svg>. • MediceneNet.com. "MedicineNet.com." 11/19/2004 http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=9145 • Students at Northern Illinois University. "History of Pyschology." Spring 2002. http://www3.niu.edu/acad/psych/Millis/History/2002/neuro.htm • OMGILI. "Right Health." 2007-2009 http://www.righthealth.com/topic/Neurosurgery/overview/wiki_detailed?modp=Neurosurgery#Modern_Neurosurgery • Isaac M. McPhee. "Suite101.com" May 4, 2008 http://cardiovascularsystem.suite101.com/article.cfm/the_circle_of_willis • Fast Health. "Fast Health." 1997-2004. http://www.fasthealth.com/dictionary/s/sylvian_fissure.php • Collice, Massimo M.D.; Collice, Rosa M.D.; Alessandro M.D. "Neurosurgery Online." October 2008. http://journals.lww.com/neurosurgery/Abstract/2008/10000/Who_Discovered_the_Sylvian_Fissure_.10.aspx • Dr. Thomas P. David. "The David Lab." 1/8/2007 http://davislab.med.arizona.edu/bbbhistory.htm • Unknown author. "StateUniversity.com" 2009 http://encyclopedia.stateuniversity.com/pages/2950/blood-brain-barrier.html

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