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## Unitarity Triangle Analysis: Past, Present, Future

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**Unitarity Triangle Analysis: Past, Present, Future**• INTRODUCTION: quark masses, weak couplings and CP in the Standard Model • Unitary Triangle Analysis: PAST • PRESENT • FUTURE Dipartimento di Fisica di Roma IGuido Martinelli Cortona May 25th 2005**C, CP and CPT and their violation are**related to the foundations of modern physics (Relativistic quantum mechanics, Locality, Matter-Antimatter properties, Cosmology etc.) Although in the Standard Model (SM) all ingredients are present, new sources of CP beyond the SM are necessary to explain quantitatively the BAU Almost all New Physics Theories generate new sources of CP**Quark Masses,**Weak Couplings and CP Violation in the Standard Model**In the Standard Model the quark mass matrix, from which**the CKM Matrix and CP originate, is determined by the Yukawa Lagrangian which couples fermions and Higgs Lquarks = Lkinetic + Lweak int +Lyukawa CP invariant CP and symmetry breaking are closely related !**QUARK MASSES ARE GENERATED**BY DYNAMICAL SYMMETRY BREAKING Charge +2/3 Lyukawa ∑i,k=1,N[ Yi,k (qiL HC ) UkR +Xi,k (qiL H) DkR + h.c. ] Charge -1/3 ∑i,k=1,N[ mui,k (uiL ukR) +mdi,k (diL dkR)+ h.c. ]**Diagonalization of the Mass Matrix**Up to singular cases, the mass matrix can always be diagonalized by 2 unitary transformations uiL UikL ukL uiR UikR ukR M´= U†L M UR (M´)† = U†R (M)† UL Lmass mup (uL uR +uR uL ) +mch(cL cR +cR cL )+mtop(tL tR +tR tL )**N(N-1)/2 angles and (N-1)(N-2)/2**phases N=3 3 angles + 1 phase KM the phase generates complex couplings i.e. CP violation; 6 masses +3 angles +1 phase = 10 parameters**NO Flavour Changing Neutral Currents (FCNC) at Tree Level**(FCNC processes are good candidates for observing NEW PHYSICS) CP Violation is natural with three quark generations (Kobayashi-Maskawa) With three generations all CP phenomena are related to the same unique parameter ( )**Quark masses &**Generation Mixing e- -decays | Vud | = 0.9735(8) | Vus | = 0.2196(23) | Vcd | = 0.224(16) | Vcs | = 0.970(9)(70) | Vcb | = 0.0406(8) | Vub | = 0.00363(32) | Vtb | = 0.99(29) (0.999) W e down up Neutron Proton | Vud |**The Wolfenstein Parametrization**+ O(4) ~ 0.2 A ~ 0.8 ~ 0.2 ~ 0.3 Sin12 = Sin23 = A 2 Sin13 = A 3(-i )**The Bjorken-Jarlskog Unitarity Triangle**| Vij | is invariant under phase rotations a1 b1 a1 = V11 V12* = Vud Vus* a2 = V21 V22* a3= V31 V32* d1 a2 b2 e1 a1 + a2 + a3 = 0 (b1 + b2 + b3 = 0 etc.) a3 b3 c3 a3 a2 Only the orientation depends on the phase convention a1 **From**A. Stocchi ICHEP 2002**sin 2 is measured directly from B J/ Ks**decays at Babar & Belle (Bd0 J/ Ks , t) - (Bd0 J/ Ks , t) AJ/ Ks = (Bd0 J/ Ks , t) + (Bd0 J/ Ks , t) AJ/ Ks = sin 2 sin (md t)**DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THEORETICAL UNCERTAINTIES (STRONG**INTERACTIONS) First class quantities, with reduced or negligible uncertainties 2) Second class quantities, with theoretical errors of O(10%) or less that can be reliably estimated 3) Third class quantities, for which theoretical predictions are model dependent (BBNS, charming, etc.) In case of discrepacies we cannot tell whether is new physics or we must blame the model**Quantities used in the**Standard UT Analysis**THE COLLABORATION**M.Bona, M.Ciuchini, E.Franco, V.Lubicz, G.Martinelli, F.Parodi, M.Pierini, P.Roudeau, C.Schiavi, L.Silvestrini, A.Stocchi Roma, Genova, Torino, Orsay THE CKM NEW 2004 ANALYSIS IN PREPARATION • New quantities e.g. B -> DK will be included • Upgraded experimental numbers after Bejing www.utfit.org**PAST and**PRESENT (the Standard Model)**Results for and & related quantities**With the constraint fromms contours @ 68% and 95% C.L. = 0.196 0.045 = 0.347 0.025 [ 0.104 - 0.283] [ 0.296 - 0.386] at 95% C.L. sin 2 = - 0.21 0.24 sin 2 = 0.726 0.028 [ -0.65 - +0.27] [ 0.670 - 0.780]**Comparison of sin 2 from direct measurements (Aleph,**Opal, Babar, Belle and CDF) and UTA analysis sin 2 measured = 0.726 0.037 sin 2 UTA = 0.725 ± 0.043 sin 2 UTA = 0.698 ± 0.066 prediction from Ciuchini et al. (2000) Very good agreement no much room for physics beyond the SM !!**Theoretical predictions of Sin 2 in the years**predictions exist since '95 experiments**Crucial Test of the Standard ModelTriangle Sides (Non CP)**compared to sin 2 and K From the sides only sin 2 =0.734 0.043**PRESENT: sin 2 from B -> & **• and (2+) from B -> DK & B -> D(D*) FROM UTA**ms Probability Density**Without the constraint fromms ms = (21.2 ± 3.2 ) ps-1 [ 15.4 - 27.8] ps-1 at 95% C.L. With the constraint fromms ms = (18.5 ± 1.6) ps-1 [ 15.6 - 23.1] ps-1 at 95% C.L.**Hadronic parameters**fBs √BBs = 276 38 MeV 14% lattice fBs √BBs = 265 13 MeV 5% UTA 5% 10% fBd √BBd = 223 33 12 MeV lattice fBd √BBd = 217 12 MeV UTA BK = 0.86 0.11 lattice BK = 0.69 0.10 UTA**Limits on Hadronic Parameters**fBs √BBs**PRESENT**(the Standard Model) NEW MEASUREMENTS**sin 2 from B -> ** B B B **sin 2 from B -> **• could be extracted by measuring**PRESENT &**NEAR FUTURE**MAIN TOPICS**• Factorization • What really means to test Factorization • B and B K decays and the determination of the CP parameter • Results including non-factorizable contributions • Asymmetries • Conclusions & Outlook From g.m. qcd@work martinafranca 2001**CHARMING PENGUINS GENERATE**LARGE ASYMMETRIES A = BR(B) - BR(B) BR(B) + BR(B) BR(K+ 0) typical A ≈0.2 (factorized 0.03) BR(K+ -) Large uncertainties BR(+-) From g.m. qcd@work martinafranca 2001**CP VIOLATION IN B DECAYS IN THE SM AND BEYOND**G. Martinelli – University of Rome With M. Ciuchini, E. Franco, A. Masiero, M. Pierini and L. Silvestrini • General ideas about B->M1M2 • B->,K • Supersymmetry in B decays? • Conclusions**General ideas about B -> M1M2 (I)**• BBNS, PQCD & SCET: B decays to light mesons can be consistently computed at NLO in terms of form factors & distribution amplitudes in the MB-> limit • Is this limit phenomenologically viable? • Expect O(/M)10-20% corrections to leading factorized amplitudes • Fine unless factorized amplitude suppressed and/or corrections enhanced**General ideas about B -> M1M2 (II)**• Corrections to penguins in charmless b->s decays doubly Cabibbo-enhanced w.r.t tree contribution: (/M)x(1/2)>>1 dominant effect! Ciuchini, Franco, G.M., Silvestrini • Possible physical idea: long-distance contributions in penguin contractions of current-current operators: Charming (c) and GIM (c – u) penguins CFMS; recently revisited in SCET by Bauer, Pirjol, Rothstein & Stewart**B -> K DECAYS (I)**• Our analysis: BR’s Ciuchini, Franco, G.M., Pierini, Silvestrini • K00 2 too low: “K puzzle”?Fleischer, Mannel; Buras, Fleischer; Buras, Fleischer, Recksiegel, Schwab;**B -> K DECAYS (II)**• Our analysis: CP asymmetries CFMPS • Interesting correlations between asymmetries: see plots**59(16)**Tree level diagrams, not influenced by new physics Using also the Dalitz Plot Method**FUTURE:**FCNC & CP Violation beyond the Standard Model