Section 4-4 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

section 4 4 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Section 4-4 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Section 4-4

play fullscreen
1 / 25
Section 4-4
50 Views
Download Presentation
faustine-gaynor
Download Presentation

Section 4-4

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. The Late Middle Ages Preview of Events Section 4-4

  2. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again. Section 4-5

  3. The Black Death • In the fourteenth century, some catastrophic changes took place in Europe.  • The worst was the Black Death. • It was the most devastating natural disaster in European history.  • It horrified people and seemed an incomprehensible evil force. (pages 335–336) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-7

  4. The Decline of Church Power • The Roman Catholic popes reached the height of their power in the thirteenth century.  • A series of problems in the next century lessened the Church’s political position.  • European kings grew unwilling to accept the papal claims of supremacy over both religious and secular matters, as the struggle between Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip IV of France shows.  • Their struggle had serious consequences for the papacy. (page 337) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-14

  5. The Decline of Church Power (cont.) • Philip claimed he had the right to tax the clergy.  • The pope said that in order to pay taxes, the clergy would need the pope’s consent.  • Philip rejected this position and sent troops to bring Boniface to France for trial.  • The pope escaped but soon died from shock.  • Philip then engineered to have a Frenchman, Clement V, elected pope in 1305. (page 337) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-15

  6. The Decline of Church Power (cont.) • The new pope established himself at Avignon, not Rome.  • The popes lived there from 1305 to 1377.  • The pope not living in Rome seemed improper, as did the splendor of how the popes lived in Avignon.  • Pope Gregory XI recognized the decline in papal prestige and returned to Rome in 1377. He died soon after his return. (page 337) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-16

  7. The Decline of Church Power (cont.) • The citizens of Rome told the cardinals to elect an Italian pope or fear for their lives.  • The terrified cardinals elected one–Pope Urban VI.  • Soon a group of French cardinals declared the election invalid and chose a Frenchman as pope. He went to Avignon.  • There now were two popes, beginning what has been called the Great Schismof the Church. (page 337) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-17

  8. The Decline of Church Power (cont.) • The Great Schism lasted from 1378 to 1417 and divided Europe politically.  • It also damaged the Church.  • Each pope denounced the other as the Antichrist, and people’s faith in the papacy and the Church was shaken.  • At a council in 1417, a new pope acceptable to all parties was elected, ending the Great Schism. (page 337) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-18

  9. The Decline of Church Power (cont.) • This crisis in the Catholic Church led to cries for an end to the clergy’s corruption and the papacy’s excessive power.  • One protesting group was the Czech reformers led by John Hus. • He was accused of heresy and burned at the stake in 1415. (page 337) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-19

  10. The Decline of Church Power (cont.) • By the early 1400s, then, the Church had lost much of its political power.  • The pope no longer could assert supremacy over the state.  • The papacy and Church also lost much of their spiritual authority. (page 337) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-20

  11. The Hundred Years’ War • In addition to economic crises, plague, and the decline of the Church, political instability was also a problem for the late Middle Ages.  • In the thirteenth century, England still had a small possession in France, the duchy of Gascony.  • King Philip VI of France tried to take it back, and King Edward III of England declared war on Philip in 1337.  • Thus began the Hundred Years’ War between England and France. It continued until 1453. (pages 337–339) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-22

  12. The Hundred Years’ War (cont.) • The war began in an explosion of knightly enthusiasm.  • However, the war was a turning point in the history of warfare because peasant foot soldiers won the chief battles in this war.  • The English foot soldiers were armed not only with pikes, but the deadly longbow, which replaced the formerly favored crossbow.  • The longbow had great striking power, long range, and a rapid rate of fire. (pages 337–339) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-23

  13. The Hundred Years’ War (cont.) • The war’s first major battle was at Crécyin 1346.  • The arrows of the English archers devastated the French cavalry.  • The English king, Henry V, was eager to conquer all of France even though the English did not have the resources.  • At the Battle of Agincourt (1415), 1,500 French nobles died on the battlefield.  • The English were masters of northern France. (pages 337–339) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-24

  14. The Hundred Years’ War (cont.) • Joan of Arc, a French peasant woman, stepped in to aid France and the timid ruler of southern France, Charles.  • Joan of Arc was born in 1412. She was deeply religious and experienced visions.  • She believed her favorite saints commanded her to free France.  • In 1429 Joan’s sincerity and simplicity convinced Charles to let her accompany the French army to Orléans.  • Inspired by Joan’s faith, the army captured the city. (pages 337–339) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-25

  15. The Hundred Years’ War (cont.) • Joan was captured in 1430.  • The Inquisition tried her for witchcraft.  • She was condemned as a heretic and executed.  • Even so, she inspired the French army, which, after defeats of the English at Normandy and Aquitaine, won the war in 1453.  • The French success was also helped by the use of the cannon, made possible by the invention of gunpowder. (pages 337–339) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-26

  16. Political Recovery • The fourteenth-century European monarchies experienced many difficulties over succession and finances.  • The fifteenth century saw a recovery of the centralized power of monarchies, however.  • Some historians refer to these reestablished states as the new monarchies.  • This term applies especially to France, England, and Spain. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-28

  17. Political Recovery (cont.) • The Hundred Years’ War left France exhausted.  • Even so, the kings used the new French national feeling to reestablish royal power.  • King Louis XI, who ruled from 1461 to 1483, greatly advanced the French state.  • He strengthened the use of the taille–an annual direct tax on property or land–as a permanent tax imposed by royal authority. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-29

  18. Political Recovery (cont.) • This gave Louis the income that helped create a strong foundation for the monarchy. (pages 339–340) Section 4-30

  19. Political Recovery (cont.) • The Hundred Years’ War also strained England’s economy.  • England faced more turmoil when the civil conflicts known as the War of the Roses broke out.  • Noble factions tried to control the monarchy until 1485, when Henry Tudor (Henry VII) established a new dynasty. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-31

  20. Political Recovery (cont.) • Henry VII tried to establish a strong royal government.  • He abolished the nobles’ private armies.  • He won support for his monarchy by his thrift and by not overtaxing the nobles and middle class. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-32

  21. Political Recovery (cont.) • A strong national monarchy also emerged in Spain.  • Muslims had conquered much of Spain by 725.  • During the Middle Ages, several Christian rulers had tried to win back Spain.  • Two of the strongest kingdoms were Aragon and Castile.  • When Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469, it was a big step towards unifying power in Spain. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-33

  22. Political Recovery (cont.) • The two rulers also had a policy of adhering strictly to Catholicism.  • In 1492, they expelled all Jews from Spain.  • Muslims were “encouraged” to convert to Catholicism.  • Within a few years, all professed Muslims were also expelled from Spain.  • To be Spanish was to be Catholic. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-34

  23. Political Recovery (cont.) • The Holy Roman Empire did not develop a strong monarchical authority.  • After 1438, the Hapsburg dynasty held the position of Holy Roman emperor.  • By the mid-fifteenth century, these wealthy rulers were playing an important role in Europe. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-35

  24. Political Recovery (cont.) • Religious differences made it hard for rulers in eastern Europe to unify their states.  • In Poland, the nobles established the right to elect their king, which weakened the monarchy.  • Since the thirteenth century, Russia had been under the control of the Mongols.  • Gradually the princes of Moscow gained power by using their relation with the khan to increase their wealth and landholdings. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-36

  25. Political Recovery (cont.) • The great prince Ivan III established a new Russian state.  • By 1480, he had thrown off the yoke of the Mongols. (pages 339–340) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 4-37