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Syntax:. THE ESSENTIAL IDEA : -Like all features of language, syntax must be examined in terms of how it contributes to meaning and effect, and helps an author achieve his/her purpose.

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  1. Syntax: THE ESSENTIAL IDEA: -Like all features of language, syntax must be examined in terms of how it contributes to meaning and effect, and helps an author achieve his/her purpose. -Also, the more you learn about syntax, the more you will know in terms of manipulating it in your own writing to achieve a certain effect.

  2. 1.Sentence Length Telegraphic Short Medium Are the sentences…… (shorter than 5 words), (approximately 5 to 10 words), (approximately 30 words or more)? (approximately 15 to 20 words), or Long Sentence lengths should be varied to break up monotony and also for emphasis. If a short sentence is placed after a long one, it will draw attention to the main idea of the short sentence.

  3. 2. Sentence Beginnings Most people don’t realize it, but they begin their sentences the exact same way, in a subject-verb format. Examples: -Hawthorne is very effective in his writing. -Politics is complicated. -This is an example of… -This explains… -People can be…

  4. 2. Sentences Beginnings cont. Strategies for varying your sentence beginnings: 1. Use two adjectives Subtle yet informative, the speaker was well-liked. 2. Use a gerund (a verb with –ing at that end that functions as a noun) Skiing, a favorite winter sport, is being overtaken by snowboarding. 3. Use an appositive (a descriptive phrase used to provide clarifying info about a preceding noun with commas before and after it). Anderson, the lamest guy around, was always being shot down by girls. 4. Use an infinitive (formal verb phrase such as to run, to sit, to play, etc.). To win an award was a proud achievement for Natasha.

  5. Sentences Beginnings cont. 5. Use a prepositional phrase (a phrase using a preposition [such as “at”, “to”, “in”, “under”, etc.] to indicate the placement of someone or something – this can be physical placement, chronological, etc.) In the high tower, the princess waits for her prince to arrive. 6. Use adverbs Quickly and quietly, Parker climbed in the window after curfew. 7. Use a participial phrase Hoping to get more time to study, Jessie took lots of caffeine pills and ended up freaking out. Jessie, hoping to get more time to study, took caffeine pills and freaked out. 8. Use a dependent clause (includes a clause that begins with a conjunction such as “and”, “but”, “however”, “yet”, etc.) Although she was already at the top of her class, Jessie felt pressure to improve her SAT score.

  6. 3. Sentence Types Four Basic Sentence Types (each have a purpose) 1- Declarative: makes a statement Example: The king seems sick. 2- Imperative: gives a command Example: Help him now. 3- Interrogative: asks a question. Example: What‘s the matter with him? 4- Exclamatory: makes an exclamation Example: The king is dead!

  7. 4. Sentence Structures 1. Simple sentence: one independent clause Example: The singer bowed to her adoring audience. 2. Compound sentence: two or more independent clauses (joined by a coordinating conjunction—and, but, for, or, not, yet, so—or a semicolon). Example: The singer bowed gratefully to the audience, but she sang no encores. Example: The singer bowed gratefully to the audience; however, she sang no encores. 3. Complex sentence: one independent clause and one or more dependent (subordinate) clauses. Example: Although the singer bowed gratefully to the audience, she sang no encores. 4. Compound-complex: two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent (subordinate) clause(s). Example: Although the audience clapped wildly, the singer sang no encores, but she did bow gratefully.

  8. 5. Sentence Arrangements 1- Loose sentences: a basic sentence with details added immediately at the end of the basic sentence elements. Example: Abraham Lincoln wept, fearing that the Union would not survive if the southern states seceded. Purpose: To inform of the main idea in a straightforward way, and add clarifying details after. 2- Periodic sentences: details are placed before or in the middle of basic sentence elements. Makes sense only when the end of the sentence is reached. Example 1: Alone in his study, lost in somber thoughts about his beloved country, dejected but not broken in spirit, Abraham Lincoln wept. Example 2: Abraham Lincoln, alone in his study, lost in somber thoughts about his beloved country, defected but not broken in spirit, wept. Purpose: To forestall info about the main idea, possibly to create tension, drama, or emphasize focus on the clarifying details. *Don’t overdo periodic sentences. The suspense they generate can be overdone, and they can become just as monotonous as any other structure that you rely on heavily. But used occasionally to break up the sameness of loose sentences, they will improve your style.

  9. 6. Special Sentence Arrangements 1. Parallelism (parallel structure): refers to a grammatical or structural similarity between sentences or parts of a sentence. It involves an arrangement of words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs so that elements of equal importance are equally developed and similarly phrased. In essence, it is a particular kind of repetition. Wrong: In the winter, I usually like to stay home and eating mac and cheese. Right: In the winter, I usually like staying home and eating mac and cheese. Right: In the winter, I usually like to stay home and to eat mac and cheese. Example: He was the kind of man who knew what he wanted, who intended to get it, and whoallowed nothing or nobody to get in his way. 2.Anadiplosis: refers to the repetition of the last word of a preceding clause. The word is used at the end of a sentence and then used again at the beginning of the next sentence. Example: "Fear leads to anger. Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering." —Yoda, Star Wars

  10. 6. Special Sentence Arrangements cont. 3. Epistrophe: refers to the repetition of the same word or words at the end of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences. It is also known as epiphora and occasionally as antistrophe.It is an extremely emphatic device because of the emphasis placed on the last word in a phrase or sentence. Example: .. this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. —Abraham Lincoln in “The Gettysburg Address” *Note: The opposite of this, in which the specific word is not emphasized again and is instead replaced with a general pronoun is called anaphora. Example: The monkey took the banana and ate it. (no reason to emphasize the word banana, so the word “it” will do when it is referenced again).

  11. So why do we care??????? • Writers use different types of sentences to create changes in meaning. • The structure of a sentence can affect the pacing of a text. • Loose sentences move quickly…galloping right along. • Periodic sentences work with delay…creating emphasis. • You should practice employing variety in your sentences within your own writing. • Good writers make informed decisions about sentence structure. They know their sentences not only carry meaning but also affect the reader.

  12. Exercise: complete under notes Do you think the following sentence from Booker T. Washington’s “Up from Slavery” is loose or periodic? “In order to defend and protect the women and children who were left on the plantation when the white males went to war, the slaves would lay down their lives.” Rewrite the sentence in a couple of ways, experimenting with making it more loose and more periodic. Notice and be ready to comment how changes affect tone, perceived meaning, and the ethos (credibility) of the writer/speaker.

  13. Class Dismissed…..

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