CHAPTER 4: DIRECTING Maybe, the most inspirational video ever . . . - YouTube.flv
LEARNING OBJECTIVE • The concept and importance of directing • Definition of leadership • Leadership approaches (Traits, Behavioral & Contingency Approach) • Definition of motivation • Motivation theories (Maslow Hierarchy of Needs, Hertzberg Two Factor, The X and Y Theory)
LEARNING OBJECTIVE • Definition of communication • Methods in communication • Forms of communication • Communication process • Problems in communication • Importance of coordination and integration I management
DEFINITION • "Activating deals with the steps a manager takes to get sub-ordinates and others to carry out plans" - Newman and Warren. • Directing is a continuous process initiated at top level and flows to the bottom through organizational hierarchy
Leadership • "Leadership is essentially a continuous process of influencing behavior. A leader breathes life into the group and motivates it towards goals. The lukewarm desires for achievement are transformed into burning passion for accomplishment" - George R. Terry.
Traits Approach • Early studies (1930’s) focus on personal characteristic that differentiates effective leaders from ineffective leaders • Leaders????? Individuals who can influence others • Effective leaders normally posses several traits (skills, abilities, knowledge, expertise)
Behavioral Approach LEADERSHIP STYLE • This approach emphasized on leadership function and leadership style MANAGERIAL GRID THEORY LIKERT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Authoritarian Leadership Style • Known as dictatorship • Leaders make decision and acts on the decision individually • Use reward and punishment system • One way communication • Obedience and loyalty to leaders are required • Fast decision but unsatisfied employees
Democratic Leadership Style • Also known as participative style • Top and lower management level will make decision together • Employees are encouraged to participate in decision making • Advantage – increase teamwork • Disadvantage – slows down decision making, reduces accountabilities
Laissez-Faire Leadership Style • Known as free form leadership style • Gives freedom & autonomy • Leader has less control and influence • Employees can use their expertise and knowledge to make decision • Increase career development • Disadvantage – creates misunderstanding and lack of unity
MANAGERIAL GRID THEORY • Study made by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton, to explain leadership style based on a) Concern for people b) Concern for production
LIKERT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM • Introduced by RensisLikert (1961) • Combined the basic management styles (job oriented + employee oriented)
Contingency Approach • There are 2 aspects influence effective leadership: a) Situation b) Traits of the leader • Two models a) Fiedler Contingency Model b) Hersey & Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory c) House Path Goal Theory
Fiedler’s Contingency Model • The Fiedler Contingency Model was created in the mid-1960s by Fred Fiedler, a scientist who helped advance the study of personality and characteristics of leaders. • The model states that there is no one best style of leadership. Instead, a leader's effectiveness is based on the situation. This is the result of two factors – "leadership style" and "situational favorableness" (later called "situational control").
Identifying leadership style is the first step in using the model. • Fiedler believed that leadership style is fixed, and it can be measured using a scale he developed called Least-Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Scale (see Figure 1).
The scale asks you to think about the person who you've least enjoyed working with. This can be a person who you've worked with in your job, or in education or training. • You then rate each factor based on this person and add up your scores. If your total score is high, you're likely to be a relationship-orientated leader. If your total score is low, you're more likely to be task-orientated leader.
Definition of Motivation • "Motivation is the complex force starting and keeping a person at work in an organization. Motivation is something that moves the person to action, and continues him in the course of action already initiates." - Dubin.
WHY MOTIVATION • Increase quality & productivity • Highly motivated employee • Better quality of work
BENEFITS OF MOTIVATION • Puts human resources into action • Improves level of efficiency of employees • Leads to achievement of organizational goals • Builds friendly relationship • Leads to stability of work force
Theory x • theory x ('authoritarian management' style) • The average person dislikes work and will avoid it he/she can. • Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organizational objectives. • The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and wants security above all else.
CHARACTERSTICS OF THEORY X MANAGER • fundamentally insecure and possibly neurotic • anti-social • vengeful and recriminatory • does not thank or praise • withholds rewards, and suppresses pay and remunerations levels • seeks culprits for failures or shortfalls • seeks to apportion blame instead of focusing on learning from the experience and preventing recurrence • does not invite or welcome suggestions • takes criticism badly and likely to retaliate if from below or peer group • poor at proper delegating - but believes they delegate well • thinks giving orders is delegating • holds on to responsibility but shifts accountability to subordinates • relatively unconcerned with investing in anything to gain future improvements • unhappy • results-driven and deadline-driven, to the exclusion of everything else • intolerant • issues deadlines and ultimatums • distant and detached • aloof and arrogant • elitist • short temper • shouts • issues instructions, directions, edicts • issues threats to make people follow instructions • demands, never asks • does not participate • does not team-build • unconcerned about staff welfare, or morale • proud, sometimes to the point of self-destruction • one-way communicator • poor listener
Theory Y • theory y ('participative management' style) • Effort in work is as natural as work and play. • People will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organizational objectives, without external control or the threat of punishment. • Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement. • People usually accept and often seek responsibility. • The capacity to use a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organizational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population. • In industry the intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utilised.
Communication Talking Twin Babies - PART 2 - OFFICIAL VIDEO - YouTube.flv
Definition of Communication • "Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another person. It is a way of reaching others by transmitting ideas, facts, thoughts, feeling sand values." - Newstrom and Davis.
Methods in Communication • Verbal
Methods in Communication • Non Verbal
Forms of Communication • Top to bottom (Downward) • Bottom to top (Upward) • Horizontal communication • Cross communication
Bottom to top • Bottom to top(Upward) • Definition: Transmission of messages from lower to higher levels of the organization (such as communication initiated by subordinates with their superiors). • Types of messages: performance on the job, job related problems, fellow employees and their problems, subordinates perceptions of org policies and practices, tasks and procedures.