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Isogloss configurations and the architecture of phonology: nesting, bundling and diffusion

Isogloss configurations and the architecture of phonology: nesting, bundling and diffusion

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Isogloss configurations and the architecture of phonology: nesting, bundling and diffusion

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  1. Isogloss configurations and the architecture of phonology: nesting, bundling and diffusion William Labov, University of Pennsylvania Methods workshop 13 Leeds August 8, 2008

  2. William Labov Home Pagewww.ling.upenn.edu/~labov

  3. Isogloss configurations

  4. Bundling

  5. Random

  6. Superposition B A B B

  7. Nesting

  8. Diffusion fan

  9. Diffusion corridor

  10. Two theories of phonological architecture widely used in dialect geography

  11. Phonemes of North American English in broad IPA notation /i/ beet FLEECE /I/ bit KIT /e/ bait FACE /E/ bet DRESS /æ/ bat TRAP /A/ pot, balm LOT, PALM /ç/ bought THOUGHT /√/ but STRUT /o/ boat GOAT /U/ put FOOT /u/ boot GOOSE /aI/ bite PRICE /aU/ about MOUTH /oI/ quoit CHOICE

  12. A binary notation as develoed by Bloch and Trager /iy/ beet FLEECE /i/ bit KIT /ey/ bait FACE /e/ bet DRESS /æ/ bat TRAP /ah/ pot, balm LOT, PALM /oh/ bought THOUGHT /√/ but STRUT /ow/ boat GOAT /uw/ put FOOT /u/ boot GOOSE /ay/ bite PRICE /aw/ about MOUTH /oy/ quoit CHOICE

  13. The architecture underlying the binary vowel notation Vowels Short Long Upgliding Long and ingliding Back upgliding Front upgliding

  14. The organization of North American vowels into subsets

  15. The Vh notation • A cover symbol for “long and/or ingliding” • Not essential. One can use /´/ in place of /h/ • Widely used in common orthography: oh, yeah, bah Pittsburgh monophthongization of /aw/ is universally spelled “dahntahn” and “sahth” Southern monophthongization of /ay/ is “ah” in dialect literature: “mah” r-less dialects are shown with “Vh” in stereotypes: “pahk the cah in the Hahvahd yahd”

  16. Phonological principles associated with the binary notation Phonological systems are organized into superordinate and subordinate sets (subsets). • Subsets form neighborhoods in which members are more confusable with each other than with members of other subsets. • Principles of maximum dispersion apply within subsets. • Principles of chain shifting apply within subsets.

  17. Neighborhoods of confusable sets that might follow from the broad IPA notation /i/ beet FLEECE /I/ bit KIT /e/ bait FACE /E/ bet DRESS /æ/ bat TRAP /A/ pot LOT /ç/ bought THOUGHT /√/ but STRUT /o/ boat GOAT /U/ put FOOT /u/ boot GOOSE

  18. Broad IPA notation in the IPA chart

  19. Four binary subsets in acoustic space

  20. Acoustic space of West Germanic vowel systems

  21. Integration of subsystems into a single acoustic space

  22. General principles of chain shifting In chain shifts, I. Tense nuclei rise along a peripheral track II. Lax nuclei fall along a non-peripheral track

  23. Directions of chain shifting on peripheral and nonperipheral tracks

  24. Martinet on maximal dispersion Phonemes co-existing in a language tend naturally to optimize the possibilities that are available from the speech organs; they tend to be as distant from their neighbors as possible while remaining easy to articulate and easy to perceive. . . Martinet 1955:62 (tr. WL), attributed to de Groot TCLP 1931:121 -> The principle of maximal dispersion applies within subsets.

  25. A stable distribution of English low vowels: an outlier not recognized as a member of the /æ/ distribution mean F2 1700 Hz /æ/ /o/ /oh/

  26. A stable distribution of English low vowels: an outlier not recognized as a member of the /æ/ distribution mean F2 1700 Hz /æ/ /o/ /oh/

  27. An unstable distribution of English low vowels: /o/ merged with /oh/ so that the /æ/ outlier affects the central tendency of /æ/, mean F2 1650 Hz /æ/ /o=oh/

  28. All vowels measured of Thelma M.

  29. Thelma M. means

  30. Thelma M. standard deviations

  31. Thelma M. short vowels (V) /i/ /u/ /e/ /^/ /æ/ /o/

  32. Thelma M. standard deviations of short vowels (V) /i/ KIT /u/ FOOT /e/ DRESS /^/ /æ/ TRAP /o/

  33. Thelma M. front upgliding vowels (Vy) /iy/ /oy/ /ey/ highlighted vowels: monophthongal /ay/

  34. Thelma M. Vy with standard deviations /iy/ /oy/ /ey/ /ay/

  35. Thelma M. back upgliding vowels (Vw) /uw/ /ow/ /aw/

  36. Thelma M. Vw standard deviations /uw/ /ow/ /aw/

  37. Nesting

  38. Change in subset membership Neighborhoods may be formed across specific locations in subsets

  39. The low back merger of LOT and THOUGHT

  40. The low back merger of LOT and THOUGHT

  41. The low back merger of /o/ and /oh/ in cot and caught, etc.(ANAE Map 9.1) Canada E.N.E. The West W. Pa.

  42. The Canadian Shift

  43. The Canadian Shift

  44. The Canadian Shift in the vowel system of Marsha M., 24 [1997], Montreal, TS659 lowering of /e/ merger of /o/ and /oh backing of /æ/

  45. The Canadian Shift in the vowel system of Hubert B., 17, Toronto, TS798 lowering of /e/ merger of /o/ and /oh backing of /æ/

  46. The Canadian Shift nested in the Low Back Merger area (ANAE Map 11.7) Low back merger isogloss

  47. The Southern Shift hit kids beatin’ set bed grade Danny Guy wipin’

  48. Map 18.4. Monophthongization of /ay/ in 1940s and 1990s

  49. Map 18.6. Stages 2 and 3 of the Southern Shift Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3

  50. Bundling