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  2. INTRODUCTION عمــارةفجر المسيحية Early Christian Architecture ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD


  4. The course aims to clear the relation between the • architectural concept and the philosophy of design • in different ages. • clear the effects of physical, Social, religious, • historical and cultural contexts and Nature of • constructional possibilities on the different • architectural elements, Through a comparative • study of architecture for different old cultures. • Concentrate on analytical study and development • of architecture from the end of the Romans period • with an emphasis on selected architecture • examples. Course Description: ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  5. Study the development in construction • technologies and space planning in Byzantine and • Medieval period (Romanesque and Gothic). • Evolution of Gothic forms - how it influenced later • development of modern architecture, European • renaissance and revival of classicism in architecture • (Classical Revival). • Ornate architecture of the Baroque and Rococo • periods in Europe. Course Description: ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  6. The course is designed to: • Introduce you to European architectural after • Romans period (.Byzantine ,Romanesque, Gothic • and renaissance architecture) • surveys the architecture of Europe Giving full • information's about the religious, historical and • cultural contexts and construction technologies and • space planning • Theoretical discussions upon the relevance and • proper use of their architecture in our today design • of buildings and sites planning Course Goals & Objectives: ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  7. Introduction and Review of the maim stations of the Old Periods COURSE TOPICS : A . Early and Byzantine Architecture • 1. Early Christian Architecture • Influences Factors • Analysis of architecture Elements • Architectural Characteristics • 2. Byzantine Architecture • Influences Factors • Analysis of architecture Elements • Architectural Characteristics • Famous Building • Aya Sofia –Constantine • San Marks Church • Byzantine Art ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  8. 1. Romanesque in Europe • Italian Romanesque • German Romanesque • France Romanesque • England Romanesque • 2. Gothic in Europe • Italian Gothic • France Gothic • England Gothic • Spanish Gothic • 3.Town Planning in the Middle Ages • Bondocia B . Medieval Architecture Mid-Term Exam ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  9. C . Classical Revival Architecture • Renaissance Architecture • Influences Factors • Analysis of architecture Elements • Architectural Characteristics • Baroque and RococoArchitecture • Influences Factors • Analysis of architecture Elements • Architectural Characteristics Final Exam ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  10. Course Grades • Mid-term Exam:Marks :30 % • Final Exam:Marks :40% • Assignments: Research Marks 20 % - • Due Time:2- Month • Quizzes & Attendance Marks : %10 ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  11. Introduction • History is a study and analysis of the past actions. It’s apart of the previous facts that could be proofed • The majority of the historians knew that the present dimensions colour and influence the past actions • The translation of the past actions re-changed frequently according to the timescale • Translations and analysis based on document sources produced in or directly after the past occurrences is considered the valuable and the most important elements ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  12. Through the history many civilizations were constructed and the people tends to build their private identification and style and if they didn't do that it comes to us through the time which we called the civilization history • We draw comparison between these civilizations to conclude the characteristics of their styles. • Studying the architectural styles starting from the creation period up to day should be connected to the current change especially the political, economical and social actions that affect the styles. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  13. Influences Factors:that affect the Architectural Style 1. Natural Factors : Climite,Geography,and Geology of the area 2. Human Factors Economical, Social, and Political conditions of the area ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  14. Conclusion the Architecture history considered apart of the art history which study the historical development of buildings design and city planning. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  15. Analysis of Architecture Styles Elements • Plans • Walls • Openings • Roofs • Columns • Moldings • Ornaments • Composition • Construction • Function • Treatment • Position ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  16. Early Christian Architecture - Influences ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  17. العوامل المؤثرة في تكوين العمارة الرومانية Influence FactorsRomans Architecture There were six factors that influence the construction of architecture styles which are: • Historical • Geographical • Geological • Climatic • Religious • Social Historical Factors Natural Factors Civil Factors ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  18. A diagram of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre based on a german documentary, claimed to be the site of Calvary and the Tomb of Jesus ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  19. Geographical • Christianity had its birth in Beit Lahim (Judaea), an eastern province of the Roman Empire • directly it became a living organism , carried by S. Peter, S. Paul, and other missionaries to Rome, the centre of the World-Empire and the fountain-head of power and influence • In spite of opposition and persecution, the new religion took root and grew, till it was strong enough to become the recognized universal religion of the whole Roman Empire. • Early Christian architecture at Rome was influenced by, and was the logical outcome of, existing Roman art, and it was modified in other parts of the Empire according to the type already recognized as suitable for the geographical situation of those countries, such as Syria, Asia Minor, North Africa, and Egypt. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  20.   Early Christian areas ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  21. map of Rome Geography. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  22. Detail of Pirro Ligorio’s Imago antiquae urbis showing Colosseum area. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  23. Basilicas ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  24. Geological • Geological influences have acted indirectly on Early Christian • architecture, for the ruins of Roman buildings often provided the • quarry whence materials were obtained. • This influenced the style, both construction and decoration ; for • columns and other architectural features, as well as fine sculptures • and mosaics from older buildings, were worked into basilican • churches of the new faith. • Domes, vaults and walls were formed of concrete, and they were • faced with brick, stone, alabaster, porphyry and other marble while White and colored marbles were imported from- all parts of the Empire • Roman architecture spread over the world, and variously • influenced by the materials found in the widely differing localities • but concrete, which in conjunction with brick and stone casing was • the favorite uniformity material of Roman architecture style • Local geological influences in Syria, as at Baalbek, also in Egypt, • as at Philae, yield many quarries so that stone blocks took the placeof Roman concrete, ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  25. Roman building materials • Marble from Rome and all over Italy • Travertine, a hard limestone from Tivoli • Tufa, a volcanic substance of which the hills of Rome are mainly composed ; • Peperino, a stone of volcanic origin from Mount Albano ; • Lava from volcanic eruptions • excellent sand and gravel. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  26. Limestone ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  27. Limestone ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  28. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  29. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  30. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  31. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  32. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  33. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  34. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  35. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  36. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  37. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  38. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  39. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  40. Travertine ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  41. A cement mithraeum, in Italy ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  42. A cement building ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  43. Mud bricks ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  44. Fired bricks ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  45. Marble ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  46. Climate • The climate of Italy, the centre of building activity has variety of climatic conditions and has diversity of architectural features and treatment in the peninsula, • The differing climates of the various Roman provinces from England to North Africa, and from Syria to Spain, produced local modifications in details which leave little choice in general design • The climatic conditions of such Roman provinces as Egypt, Syria, and North Africa where Christianity was established were more or less varied, and naturally modified the style in those countries where the fiercer sun and hotter climate necessitated small windows and other Eastern features. • North Italy has the climate of the temperate region of Europe, Central Italy is genial and sunny, while the south is almost tropical. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  47. Religious • Christianity has striking rise, and rapidity diffused throughout the civilized world, and, in all subsequent ages, • Christianity has inspired greatest monuments building and the Christian communities established in Eastern Mediterranean, in Syria, Africa, Greece, and Italy, lead to many ruins of Early Christian basilican churches • the God preached by S. Paul was " not like unto gold or silver or stone graven by art and device of man," nor a God that dwelled " in temples made with hands " like those of the old Greeks and Romans which were built to shelter the statues of the gods. • The purpose of the Christian church was to shelter worshippers who met for prayer and praise to an unseen Deity, and, during the unsettled conditions at the beginning of Christianity, various places were adapted for this worship. • Thus the building of pagan temples ceased before any attempt was made to build Christian churches. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  48. Constantine decree 313 A.D., give Christianity equal rights with other religions, and in A.D. 323 he professed Christianity, which became the official religion of the Roman Empire, and began to build churches of a type suitable to their needs and ritual. • churchesFortified by its official position and freed from the need for unity within, which had been engendered by persecution. • So Early laid foundations of the temporal power of the Papacy, steadily increased, especially under Popes Hadrian I and Leo II. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  49. Social • Constantine changed the capital of the Empire from Rome to Byzantium in A.D. 324, when the old Roman political system came to an end • Besides the troubles caused by Julian the Apostate, Christianity suffered further disabilities during the unsettled conditions consequent upon the division of the Roman Empire, which first took place in A.D. 365 when Valentinian became Emperor of the West and his brother Valens of the East. • Theodosius the Great (A.D. 379-395) reunited, for a time, the Eastern and Western Empires, • again the seat of power was changed, and Theodoric the Goth reigned in Italy (A.D. 493–526) and , Byzantine art influenced Early Christian art by way of Ravenna, which rivalled Rome in importance and was the capital of the Gothic Dynasty A.Daa. 493–552 with the exception of a short period when it was subdued by Justinian (A.D. 537). ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  50. Kings were elected for the separate states of Spain, Northern Africa, and Italy, where King Odoacer recognized the supremacy of the one Roman Emperor at Constantinople. • So it is clear that these many social changes and political disturbances could not fail to be reflected in the architecture of a period in which great formative forces were at work. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD