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ARCHITECTURE HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE HISTORY

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ARCHITECTURE HISTORY

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  1. ARCHITECTURE HISTORY ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  2. العمــارة في عصر الرومانيسك Romanesque Architecture ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  3. Romanesque in Germany ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  4. Romanesque in Germany General characters • Romanesque in Germany started in the 12 centaury more strength • and free from influence of Roman style, or eastern styles • Germans added another apse at the West (the main entrance) and therefore transferred to the entrances of the church to the sides and appears three apses • Details become less and decoration become few, simple but accurate • moldings has a lot of relief's mass formations • Use of simple materials like masonry • Façades are almost smooth • Ratios are accurate, which give strengthen the building • Use of repeated Circular arches • The plan is basilican form with small transepts and the presence of • Apses and sometimes has 2-Ailes at each side • Apses covered with intersective vaults but the Nave covered with wooden trusses ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  5. Church plans are peculiar in having both western and eastern apses and thus there are no great western entrances as in France. The reason for these double apses has never been thoroughly explained ; some think that the eastern apse may have been used for the abbot and monks and the western apse for the bishop and laity, or that the western apse may be the survival of the detached baptistery which had been usual in earlier churches. • The general character is of numerous circular and octagonal turrets, polygonal domes, and arcaded galleries under the eaves • Doorways were placed laterally in the aisles and are the most richly ornamented features of the churches, with shafts and capitals boldly and effectively carved. • Vaulting appears late some fifty years after its general adoption in France. • Germany, also has aisless transept and chancel. • A typical Germanic characteristic is the presence of towers framing the chancel and the west end.The paired towers flank each end of the building and have later copper spires. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  6. Analysis of architectural elements A.Plans • The plan is crusading form (basilican form with small transepts) and the presence of Apses and sometimes has 2-Ailes at each side • Aisles covered with continuous intersective vaults (4 or 6 ribs) with transverse arched dividing it to classes but the Nave covered with wooden trusses • Churches divided into nave and aisle each divided to 4 square parts • The most important characteristic of German-style the platform which rise above the level of the nave to placed the shrine beneath. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  7. Germany, Speyer Cathedral. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  8. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD Romanesque church interiors in Bavaria

  9. German Bamberg Cathedral. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  10. German Bamberg Cathedral. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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  14. Analysis of architectural elements B.Walls • The plain wall surface is relieved by pilaster strips, derived from Classic Roman art, connected horizontally at different stages by ranges of arches on corbels which, owing to the smallness of scale, • Open arcades, the origin of which has already been considered, are frequent under the eaves of roofs, especially round apses • Churches usually have a triforium and always a clear-story ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  15. Schwarzach Germany Roman-Monastery ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  16. Cathedral Exterior ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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  20. Germany, Bremen Cathedral. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  21. C . Towers • The towers are basic characters with two, four, or six towers with square, cylinder, or ribbed form • Sometimes octagonal tower rises over the crusading intersection and covered with pyramid roof with small windows underneath • Square towers, divided into storeys by moulded courses, frequently terminate in four gables with rafters rising from the apex of each, and the roofing planes intersect at these rafters and thus form a pyramidal roof with four diamond-shaped sides meeting at the apex • Polygonal towers have similar roofs, but with valleys between the gables and all show the commencement of the evolution of spire ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  22. German Bamberg Cathedral. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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  24. Germany, Worms Cathedral ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  25. Germany, Limburger Dom ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  26. Jericho Monastery ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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  29. Lübeck Dom-von-Westen ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  30. St. Florin´s Church ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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  32. Cathedral Exterior ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  33. D . Roofs • At the exterior used trusses roofs covered with leaden or copper and other coverage materials • At the interior used ribbed or cross vaults painted with deferent colors • the semicircular cross-vault of the nave is of a domical nature, owing to the use of semicircular ribs, which rise to a greater height over the diagonal of the compartment. • The system of including two bays of the aisle in one nave vaulting compartment was generally adopted • Timber roofs were also employed for naves with large spans, ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  34. RatzeburgDom ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  35. St Laurentii Süderende Föhr ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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  39. E . Pillars and Peirs • The pillars are cylindrical or combined containing several rectangular splints has capitals with carved decorations in the form of leaves of trees and animals • In nave arcades square piers with attached half-columns were usual; though sometimes varied by the alternation of compound piers and cylinders, crowned by capitals bold in execution and well designed • The shafts and capitals in doorways are frequently elaborately carved with figures of men, birds, and animals ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  40. Corinthian order ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  41. Acanthus Order) ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  42. Capital Jerichow ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  43. Romanesque Pier with engaged corner shafts from the Church at Hecklingen ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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  45. F. Opining • Openings are small circular single or two grouped windows form • In Towers the openings are two neighbors windows with semi-circle arch with column in between • Doors consists of interfered arches loaded at group of continuous • Nave arcades are frequently unmoulded and the semi-circular arches spring from piers or cylinders, while alternate piers are sometimes carried up to support the vault ribs • Cloisters frequently have small columns supporting arches in groups of three • The eaves galleries borrowed from Lombardy, are special features, sometimes carried entirely round the church • Doorways are frequently in the side aisles instead of in the west front or transepts, and have recesses • Windows are usually single, but occasionally grouped and sometimes have a mid-wall shaft • columns ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  46. Romanesque church facades in Bavaria ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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