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ARCHITECTURE HISTORY

ARCHITECTURE HISTORY

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ARCHITECTURE HISTORY

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  1. ARCHITECTURE HISTORY ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  2. العمــارة القوطيــــة Gothic Architecture ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  3. Gothic Architecture General characters • Gothic architecture style extend and interact with Romanesque architecture with no clear line separated the styles and is considered a mixture of both Romanesque and Greek features • It is flourished in Europe from the mid-12th century to the end of the 15th century. It is characterized by the vertical lines of tall pillars and spires, greater height in interior spaces, the pointed arch, rib vaulting, and the flying buttress. • Gothic architecture originated in Normandy in the 12th century. It was essentially the style of the Catholic countries of Europe, including Hungary and Poland, and attained its highest excellence in France and England. • It developed forms on a regional basis of great complexity and beauty, and was used for non-religious buildings as well as for cathedrals, churches, and monasteries. • The style was common in Western Europe until the 16th century when classic architecture was revived. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  4. The " Gothic " term employed by Sir Christopher Wren in the 17 century as reproach for this style of Goth or Germs people, which had departed from the Classic lines which he was instrumental in re-establishing. This term is now given to the Mediaeval architecture of the13, 14, and 15 centuries in Europe • The 13 century Gothic was slowly evolved from Romanesque and is mainly distinguished by the general use of the Assyria pointed arch in conjunction with buttresses and lofty pinnacles, as symbolic of the religious aspirations • Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and It is also the architecture of many castles, palaces, town halls, universities, and private dwellings. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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  8. Romanesque architects had substitute elasticity and equilibrium for the inert خمول stability practiced by the Romans, and Gothic architects further extended the application of these static laws, by employing small stones laid in shallow courses with thick mortar joints, so as to secure the greatest amount of elasticity compatible with stability. • The Gothic masons utilized stone to its utmost capacity, and in the later periods reveled in miraclesمعجزات of construction and marvels مهاراتof craftsmanship • They heaped upكدس stone in towers that, rising above the lofty roofs of naves and transepts, tapered تتناقصupwards in slender spires embroidered with lace-like tracery. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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  11. The stability of a Gothic cathedral depends upon the proper adjustment of thrust and counterthrust. The collected pressures of the nave vaulting and outer roof, which are downward owing to their weight and oblique owing to the arched form of the vault, are counteracted by arches carried above the aisle roofs to press against the nave wall, and these arches are supported by an outer line of massive buttresses weighted by pinnacles • in Roman buildings, the wall system consists of solid walls enclosing the building and supporting a continuous vault, but in a Gothic building the wall system consists of pieces of wall, or buttresses, at right angles to the building, to take the collected pressures of the ribbed vault. This structural is known as a " flying buttress." The entire structure consists of a skeleton of piers, buttresses, arches, and ribbed vaulting, all held in equilibrium by the combination of oblique and vertical forces neutralizing each other ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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  17. The Greek temple is reposeful in the repetition of its columns and the horizontal entablatures, whereas the Gothic cathedral is a complex, restless structure composed of many vertical features, • Gothic architecture features were not left to artistic work, but were set to structural utility, as exemplified in the ribs of vaults which are sinewsعصب to support the vaulting panels. • Gothic building characterized as strong expressive model, which stemmed internal and external forms from requirements and construction needs • the use of ribbed vaults enabled the Gothic constructor to build high-rise cathedrals and churches • The vaults loaded on internal huge piers and thrust with external buttresses and the size depend on the quantity of natural lighting required and available, which was significant in the Nordic countries where there is no sun and relatively small in the southern regions where there are natural lighting ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  18. the forms were founded primarily on structural necessity, others were the expression of artistic invention like the spire fulfilled no structural requirement, but it served as a symbol directed to heaven. • Gothic architects had not either the monumental marble of the Greeks or the massive blocks of stone of the Romans, for the stone had to be split into smaller pieces for easy transport ; thus they erect large buildings with small stones, whereas the Greeks had erected small buildings with large blocks of marble • Gothic art was more developed compared to Romanesque primary carving where gothic carvers have advanced ideals and made statues of men, senate, kings and princes, saints and women's statues represent angels and saints ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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  20. The walls were required to enclose and not to support the structure, so consisted of glazed windows • The vaulting ribs, collected at intervals, were supported on capitals shaped to fit them, and shafts, when continued to the ground, modified the form of the nave piers of which they formed a part. • Pointed arch was introduced to overcome the differences in height between semicircular arches over spans of varying width. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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  31. brilliant translucent windowed walls of a Gothic cathedral rival the beauty of the painted hieroglyphics of Egyptian temples, the sculptured slabs of Assyrian palaces, the paintings and sculpture of Greek temples, the frescoes of Roman thermal, and the mosaics of Byzantine and Romanesque churches ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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  34. Windows in the Chapter House at York Minster show the equilateral arch with typical circular motifs in the tracery ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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  40. العوامل المؤثرة في تكوين العمارة القوطية Influence FactorsGothic Architecture There were six factors that influence the construction of architecture styles which are: • Historical • Geographical • Geological • Climatic • Religious • Social Historical Factors Natural Factors Civil Factors ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  41. Geographical • The Western Europe peoples who was under the dominion and civilization of Rome, had formed into separate nations, with a consequent new territorial distribution of the map of Europe. The Latin races of France, Italy, and Spain developed into independent kingdoms ; Germany was the centre of the Holy Roman Empire ; England, under her Norman kings, possessed large settlements in France and was thus linked up with Western Europe ; but Russia, Sweden, and Norway were little affected by this movement. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

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  45. Geological • The Geological conditions vary so much in Europe which contribute a definite influence in differentiating the style according to countries ; thus the white and colored marbles of Italy, the coarse-grained stone of France and England, the brick of northern Germany and of Lombardy are all factors in determining the character of the architecture of these countries. . ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  46. Rocks of stones ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  47. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  48. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  49. A cement building ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  50. Mud bricks ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD