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The Respiratory System

The Respiratory System

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The Respiratory System

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  1. The Respiratory System Lecture 3 Done by: Alaa Al-Hasani

  2. Objective of the lecture On the completion of this lecture, you will able to: • Identify and describe the major structures and functions of the respiratory system. • Recognize, define, spell and pronounce terms related to the pathology, the diagnostic and treatment procedures of the respiratory system.

  3. Lecture Content • Functions of the Respiratory System • Structures of the Respiratory System • The Upper Respiratory System • The Lower Respiratory System • Medical terms

  4. Functions of the Respiratory System • Bring oxygen- rich air into the body for delivery to the body tissues through the blood. • Expel waste product (carbon dioxide) returned to the lungs by the blood. • (This process is accomplished through act of respiration ) • Produce the airflow through the larynx that makes speech possible.

  5. Structures of the Respiratory System

  6. Structures of the Respiratory System The respiratory system is divided into: • The Upper respiratory tract consists of the nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx and trachea. • The Lower respiratory tract consists of the bronchial tree and lungs.

  7. The Upper Respiratory System

  8. The Upper Respiratory System 1- The Nose Functions of the nose: • It serves as an air passageway. • It warms and moistens inhaled air. • Its cilia and mucous membrane trap dust, bacteria and other foreign matter. • It contains olfactory receptors, which sort out odors.

  9. The Upper Respiratory System 1- The Nose Medical Terminology: • Rhin/o/plasty (Rhin/o- means nose,-plasty means surgical repair) • Definition:surgical repair of the nose. • Rhin/o/rrhea(Rhin/o- means nose,-rrheameans flow, discharge) • Definition:discharge from the nose. • Rhin/o/scopy(Rhin/o- means nose,-scopymeans process of visual examination) • Definition:process of visual examination of the nose.

  10. The Upper Respiratory System 2- The Pharynx The pharynx or throat is divided into 3 parts: • Naso/pharynx (Naso- means nose) located behind the nose. • Oro/pharynx (oro- means mouth) located behind the mouth. • Laryngo/pharynx (laryngo- means larynx) located behind the larynx. The functions of the pharynx or throat : • Serves as a passageway for both air and food at the back of the throat.

  11. The Upper Respiratory System 2- The Pharynx Medical Terminology: • Pharyng/itis(Pharyng-means pharynx, -itismeans inflammation) • Definition:inflammation of the pharynx. • Naso/o/Pharyng/itis(Naso/o-means nose, -Pharyng-means pharynx, -itismeans inflammation). • Definition:inflammation of the nose and pharynx.

  12. The Upper Respiratory System 3- The Larynx (voice box) Cartilages of the Larynx: • The Thyroid Cartilage : known as “Adam’s Apple” • The Epiglottic Cartilage (know as Epiglottis):prevent aspiration of the food into the trachea. • The Cricoid Cartilage General functions of the Larynx : • Production of the vocal sounds.

  13. The Upper Respiratory System 3- The Larynx (voice box) Medical Terminology: • Laryng/itis(Laryng- means larynx, -itismeans inflammation) • Definition:inflammation of the larynx. • Laryng/o/scope(Laryng/o-means larynx, -scope means instrument). • Definition:an instrument used to examine the larynx.

  14. The Upper Respiratory System 4- The Trachea General functions of the Trachea (windpipe): • Provide an open passageway for air to the lung.

  15. The Upper Respiratory System 4- The Trachea Medical Terminology: • Trache/algia(Trache- means trachea, -algiameans pain) • Definition:pain in the trachea. • Trache/o/laryng/o/tomy(Trache/o-means trachea,laryng/o means larynx , -tomymeans incision). • Definition:incisioninto the trachea and larynx. • Trache/o/stomy(Trache/o-means trachea , -stomymeans newopening). • Definition:new opining into the trachea.

  16. The Lower Respiratory System

  17. The Lower Respiratory System 1- The Bronchial tree • The trachea divides into 2 branches called Bronchi (singular called Bronchus) , one branch goes into each lung. • The Bronchi provide the passageway for air to the lungs. • The Bronchi are further subdivided into Bronchioles. • Eventually, the further subdivisions lead to tiny air sacs called Alveoli. • Alveoli are the very small grape-like clusters found at the end of each bronchiole. • Capillaries surrounding each alveolus is where the exchange of gases with the blood occurs.

  18. The Lower Respiratory System 1- The Bronchial tree Medical Terminology: • Bronchi/ ectasis(Bronchi-means bronchi, -ectasismeans dilation, expansion or stretching) • Definition:dilation of the bronchi. • Bronchiol/itis(Bronchiol- means bronchiole, -itismeans inflammation). • Definition:inflammation of the bronchiole. • Bronch/o/scope(Bronch/o means bronchi, -scope means instrument). • Definition:an instrument used to examine the bronchi.

  19. The Lower Respiratory System 2- The Lung The lungs are divided into lobes; • The right lung has 3 lobes (superior, middle and inferior) • The left lung has 2 lobes (superior and inferior), and it slightly smaller than right lung because of the space taken by the heart.

  20. The Lower Respiratory System 2- The Lung Medical Terminology: • Pulmon/ectomy(pulmon- means lung, -ectomymeans excision) • Definition:surgical excision of the lung or part of a lung. • Pneumon/itis(Pneumon- means lung, -itismeans inflammation). • Definition:inflammation of the lung.

  21. The Lower Respiratory System The Diaphragm • Is the muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. • The contraction and relaxation of this muscle makes breathing possible.

  22. Main word roots and their meanings

  23. Examples of Suffixes

  24. Medical Terms

  25. Pathology of the Respiratory System

  26. Anoxia :absence of oxygen from the body. • Hypoxia : decreased (below normal) oxygen in body tissue. • Hemoptysis : coughing (spitting up) of blood (-ptysismeans spitting). • Cyanosis:bluish discoloration of skin due to lack of oxygen. • Hiccup: chronic spasm of diaphragm.

  27. Breathing disorders • Apnea :without breathing • Tachypnea: rapid breathing • Bradypnea:slow breathing • Dyspnea : difficult or painful breathing (shortness of breath “SOB”) • Orthopnea: difficult breathing while supine

  28. Laryngoplegia:paralysis of the larynx. • Bronchiectasis: chronic , irreversible enlargement of bronchi. • Bronchorrhea:an excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi. • Pleuritis:inflammation of the pleura. • Pneumothorax: accumulation of air in the chest cavity. • Hydrothorax:accumulation of water in the chest cavity • Pyothorax:accumulation of pus in the chest cavity. • Hemothorax: accumulation of blood in the chest cavity. • Pneumorrhagia: bleeding from the lung.

  29. Emphysma:is the progressive loss of lung function in which alveoli (air sacs) lose their elasticity and breakdown resulting in a loss of respiratory surface in the lungs. • Shortness of breath is the chief symptom (smoking frequently leads to this disorder).

  30. Asthma :is a chronic allergic disorder caused by several factors such as swelling and inflammation of the lining of the airway. • Asthma characterized by episode of severe breathing difficulty, coughing and wheezing.

  31. Pleural effusion:which is the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space. (effusion is the escape of fluid from blood or lymph vessels into cavity).

  32. Pulmonary edema:is an accumulation of fluid in lung tissues. (edema means swelling)

  33. Tuberculosis: which is an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  34. Aspiration pneumonia: inhaling or drawing a foreign substances into the upper respiratory tract.

  35. Pneumonia:is serious infection or inflammation of the lung in which the smallest bronchioles and alveoli fill with pus and other liquid. (pneumon- means lung , -iameans abnormal condition)

  36. Cystic fibrosis (CF) :is a genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus.

  37. Diagnostic procedures

  38. Laryngoscopyand Bronchoscopy: visual examination of larynx and bronchi with endoscope. • Spirometry:is instrument use to measure the procedure of ventilation of lungs by spirometer (Spir/o means to breath / -metrymeans to measure). • Bronchography: Radiological examination of the bronchial tree. • Stethoscope :instrument used to hear chest sounds .

  39. Surgical procedures

  40. Pulmonectomy: surgical removal of the lung or a part of a lung. • Thoracoplasty:surgical repair of the chest. • Thoracotomy:incision into (cutting into) the chest. • Tracheostomy:new opening into trachea . • Tracheolaryngotomy:incision into the trachea and larynx. • Thoracocentesis:surgical puncture using needle to remove fluid from chest. • Ventilator: device used for providing artificial respiration.

  41. Instrument for visual examination = - scope

  42. Which one is correct ,Laryngoscope or laryngoscopy ? Visual examination by instrument = -scopy

  43. Surgical opening = - stomy

  44. Cutting into = -tomy

  45. Treatment

  46. Drug groups • Antitussive:drug inhibit or prevent cough. • Mucolytic:drug dissolve sputum. • Inhalant : drug administer by inhalation, act locally on respiratory system. • Bronchodilator: expands the opening of the air passages.

  47. Medical specialist related to the respiratory system

  48. Otorhinologist: Physician who specializes in diagnosis and treating diseasesof ear and nose . • Pulmonologist : Physician who specializes in diagnosis and treating diseases of lung .