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Part 4

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  1. Part 4

  2. Recycling of composite materials

  3. Definitions • Recycling = Reuse + Recovery • Reuse = Reuse of products in similar or different applications • Recovery = material recovery + energy recovery

  4. RECYCLING CLASSIFICATIONS Source: Rusch. K., Recycling of Automotive SMC - the Current Picture, 48th Annual Conference, SPI 1993

  5. DRIVING FORCES FOR THE RECYCLING OF COMPOSITE WASTE • Landfill disposal will no longer be allowed because of legislation • Regulatory and economic constrains are directing the waste management • Customer and public demands

  6. COMPOSITE WASTE TYPES

  7. Typical production waste 7

  8. METHODS FOR RECYCLING OF COMPOSITE WASTE • Material recovery: Mechanical particle size reduction of the cured composite with direct reuse of the resulting ground fractions • Energy recovery: Incineration of the composite waste together with other fuels • Material recovery with energy recovery: Energy recovery of matrix by incineration, reuse of inorganic ash in suitable products • Chemical recycling: Decomposition of the matrix resin through hydrolysis or pyrolysis to basic raw materials

  9. MATERIAL RECOVERY OF COMPOSITE WASTE • Mechanically ground fractions of recycled composites are used in new products • Recycled composite is mixed with virgin material as filler or reinforcement • Up to 5 - 15 % by weight of recycled fractions can be used in the virgin material

  10. REQUIREMENTS FOR MATERIAL RECYCLING Logistic system for collecting, sorting and dismantling Quality system for producing ground fractions free from contamination Feasible process technology and applications for recycled materials 10

  11. Dismantling of waste products – one example 11

  12. Recycling of automotive composite components • Mechanical recycling of SMC parts from the automotive industry was done commercially by ERCOM in Germany during 1990-1995, but this has now ended • Over 2 million parts have been recycled • Potential for increase of SMC recycling rate (currently < 1 % of SMC production in Europe) • Cost of recycled SMC higher than virgin SMC at present volumes

  13. ERCOM - a concept for material recycling

  14. CASE II: CONCEPT-BOAT CONTAINING 20 % RECYLED MATERIALS BASED ON TOTAL WEIGHTDEMONSTRATOR FROM 1990 • Layer of recycled laminate between layers of virgin laminate • Ground, recycled fractions are mixed with virgin material • Application by special spray-up equipment • Cost and performance similar as for conventional boats

  15. CASE III. CONCEPTS FOR MATERIAL RECYCLING IN JAPAN Mobile incinerator for GRP waste 17

  16. Collection of used leisure boats in Finland 737 000 leisure boats in Finland Finnboatrf and KuusakoskiOy 4 collection points in southwest Finland Collection June – August 2005 Fragmentation at waste collection site 18

  17. MSK 2007-11-30 19 Foto: Aulis Nikkola

  18. 20 Foto: Aulis Nikkola

  19. MSK 2007-11-30 21 Foto: Aulis Nikkola

  20. Conclusions and experiences 170 boats were collected A very large part wood or partially wood containing boats The fragmentation gives relatively large parts which must be fragmented additionally 22

  21. ENERGY RECOVERY BY INCINERATION • The most important replacement for landfill • Energy recovery is generally accepted in Europe • Is already implemented at several incineration plants for household waste in the Nordic countries • Energy content of composite waste depends on the amount of inorganic fibres and fillers • Incombustible residue from the glass reinforcement and the filler

  22. Energy content depends on the filler and reinforcement content in the composite Ash content and heat content for different composites

  23. Fragmentation before incineration 25

  24. Residue from incineration 26

  25. Recycling of wind turbine blades by a combination of energy recocery and material recoveryReFiber Danmark www.refiber.com

  26. From wind turbine blade to insulating material

  27. RECOVERY OF GLASS FIBRES FROM THE INCINERATION PROCESS Source: University of Nottingham, UK, 1998 29

  28. Proposed plant Separated fibres from the incineration process can be used to make moulding compounds, with a recycled fibre content up to 50 wt-% Source: University of Nottingham, UK, 1998 30

  29. Controlled incineration leaving reinforcement intact 31

  30. Green Label A European recycling concept since 2003 Co-operation between composite companies Fee based: membership fee and recycling fee Technical development of recycling methods Recycling at recycling centres in Europe 32

  31. MSK 2007-11-30 33

  32. Recycling of automobiles Regulated by the End-of-Life-Vehicles directive 2000/53/EC In 2015: 85 % reuse + recycling, 10 % energy recovery, 5 % disposal (landfill) In 2006: 80 % reuse + recycling, 5 % energy recovery, 15 % disposal 34

  33. Recycling of End-of-Life Vehicles (ELV’s) Metal components (ferrous and non ferrous) 75 % of car weight, totally recycles Non-metallic components 25 % of car weight; plastics, glass, rubber and textiles 35

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  35. Plastics in cars Rapid increase in the use of plastics Fewer plastic types are used Plastics has a positive impact on environment during the use phase of a car, due to the low weight which saves fuel 100 kg plastics replaces 200-300 kg heavier materials (1000 l fuel savings!) Large pure plastics components easy to dismantle can be recycled mechanically Energy or raw material recovery is most efficient for non-separable plastics 37

  36. 38

  37. Recycling insurance RECYCLER PRODUCER CONSUMER $ BILL INSURANCE INSURANCE COMPANY 39

  38. European Composites Industry Association (EuCIA) –Recycle composites as raw material for cement Source: www.eucia.com

  39. Life cycle analysis A tool for evaluating the total environmental impact of a product or a service from cradle to grave

  40. LCA ESTIMATES THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT USE OF RESOURCES RAW MATERIALS MATERIAL ENERGY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT PRODUCTION USE OF PRODUCTS WASTE TREATMENT

  41. Use of LCA • Identify phases in a products life cycle that account for the main environmental impact • Compare different raw materials, production methods, energy-supply and transportation systems • Use obtained data to select the material combinations with the lowest environmental impact

  42. Life cycle analysis EPS Environmental load = Environmental load index X amount ELU (Environmental Load Unit)

  43. Example: Liquid gas bottles Material options: Weight Composite 6.6 kg Aluminium 7.1 kg Steel 12.1 kg Use environment: Non corrosive - corrosive Stationary use - mobile use

  44. LIQUID GAS BOTTLESStationary use, normal environment +0.1 -12 -35

  45. Front for passenger car