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Life Cycle Assessment

Life Cycle Assessment

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Life Cycle Assessment

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  1. Life Cycle Assessment Cradle to Grave Analysis

  2. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) • Life Cycle Analysis • “Cradle to Grave” • Comprehensive accounting of a products “flows” to and from the environment • Qualitative vs. Quantitative • As simple or as complex as desired • Uses of LCA • “Greeness” of a product or process • Comparisons of technology • Feasibility • Value of LCA’s for Scientific Inquiry • Bridges science, individual and corporate responsibility, planning and thinking, recycling and for some reason students love it… What is a Life Cycle Assessment?

  3. Stages of an LCA

  4. Stages of an LCA It’s not a Cycle!!!

  5. Recycling

  6. Environmental Impact throughout Lifecycle • Inputs • Energy • Raw materials • Outputs • Emissions to air • Emissions to water • Solid waste • Health & Safety

  7. Example: Automobile

  8. http://www.transportation.anl.gov/pdfs/TA/345.pdf Example: EtOH

  9. to page 4 Brine extraction - H2 cyclohexane acetic acid Acetic acid production - Brine purification - ammonia Hydrogenation - p-xylene Ammonia production - methanol brine NaOH p-xylene separation - Methanol production - Cl2 Brine electrolysis - pipeline ethylene toluene benzene H2 xylenes syngas Steam reforming - butadiene HCl production - ethylene pipeline propylene Catalytic reforming - Dehydrogenation - H2 HCl propylene Natural gas extraction - pentane Crude oil extraction - pygas butenes Oil refining - Natural gas processing - Cracking - natural gas naphtha crude oil Page 3 to page 2 to page 4 to page 1 Example: Plastics toluene chlorine p-xylene ethylene benzene pentane methanol ammonia propylene butadiene natural gas cracker hydrogen carbon monoxide hydrogen chloride reformer hydrogen electrolytic hydrogen CO

  10. from page 3 to page 5 Oxidation - Ethylene oxide production - Nitrobenzene production - Aniline production - Propylene polymerisation - Polymerisation for LDPE - acrylonitrile Acrylonitrile production - Ethylene glycol production - acetone cyanohydrin Oriented film extrusion - Blow moulding - Acetone cyanohydrin production - HCN production - nitric acid HCN aniline Cumene production - Catalytic rearrangement - Injection moulding - Film extrusion - styrene Pipe extrusion - OPP film Ethylbenzene production - Styrene production - PP mouldings HDPE bottles ethylbenzene acetone phenol Polymerisation for LLDPE - HDPE resin Polymerisation for HDPE - Blow moulding - HDPE pipe Propylene oxide production - propylene oxide PP resin LDPE resin cumene ethylene oxide ethylene glycol Page 4 to page 5 to page 3 to page 1 LLDPE resin LDPE bottles LDPE film Example: Plastics ethylene benzene hydrogen ammonia natural gas propylene propylene ethylene phenol acetone styrene acrylonitrile ethylene glycol propylene oxide ethylene oxide acetone cyanohydrin

  11. from page 5 to page 7 adiponitrile Polymerisation for EPS - Butadiene polymerisation - ABS graft copolymer production - Adiponitrile production - Cyclohexanol production - ABS polymerisation - Thermoforming - Adipic acid production - cyclohexanol Hexamethylene diamine production - Hexamethylene diamine production - EPS ABS mass polymerisation - adipic acid GPPS nylon 66 salt Polymerisation for HIPS - Nylon 66 salt prod’n - Compounding - HIPS SAN production - SAN ABS Polymerisation for GPPS - PS trays Nylon 66 Production - Compounding - nylon 66 glass filled nylon 66 polybutadiene Page 6 to page 1 to page 7 to page 5 Example: Plastics pentane butadiene acrylonitrile hydrogen acrylonitrile styrene cyclohexane styrene ammonia nitric acid butadiene natural gas glass fibre

  12. from page 6 to page 8 Formaldehyde production - Phosgene production - Dinitrotoluene production - MDA production - allyl chloride Allyl chloride production - Bisphenol-A production - dinitrotoluene formaldehye MDI production - TDA production - MDA steam Epichlorohydrin production - phosgene Liquid epoxy resin prod’n - polycarbonate TDA epichlorohydrin MDI electricity On-site electricity generation - TDI production - On-site steam generation - Polycarbonate production - TDI liquid epoxy resin bisphenol-A Page 7 to page 6 to page 8 to page 1 Example: Plastics carbon monoxide TDI toluene aniline chlorine nitric acid methanol phenol MDI hydrogen acetone chlorine propylene

  13. to page 9 from page 7 Polyurethane flexible foam production Contact: www.silicones-europe.com Chlorosilanes production - Silicone production - Methyl chloride production - Oxidation - Polyurethane rigid foam production Hydrogenation - Sugar production - cyclohexanone Coal mining & processing - Silicon production - Coke production - Polyol production- (A wide variety of materials are used - only a small sample are shown here) Quartz mining - oxime Sucrose production - Wood growing & harvesting Charcoal production - Caprolactam production - Oxime production - caprolactam PUR rigid foam Animal fat production - Saponification - Glycerol production - glycerol nylon 6 PUR flexible foam Compounding - silicones Nylon 6 production - polyols Page 8 to page 7 to page 9 to page 1 glass filled nylon 6 Example: Plastics methanol propylene HCl MDI cyclohexane TDI phenol pentane ethylene oxide propylene oxide glass fibre

  14. from page 8 styrene-butadiene dispersion Vinyl acetate production - Latex polymerisation - Acrylic acid production - Acrylic acid production - Contact: www.cefic.be Contact: www.cefic.be Contact: www.cefic.be vinyl acetate dispersion Vinyl acetate dispersion production - acrylic dispersions Acrylic acid ester production - Acrylic dispersion production - Page 9 to page 8 to page 1 Example: Plastics styrene acetic acid ethylene butadiene propylene acrylonitrile

  15. Impact Assessment • Human health • Environmental effects • Depletion of resources

  16. The Toothbrush…