Appeals Logos, Ethos, and Pathos Logical, Ethical, and Emotional/motivational
Logos – Logical Appeal • Reasoning and evidence used to develop a persuasive message • Pathos – Emotional Appeal • Appeal to the emotions of the audience through the use of language • Ethos- Ethical appeal
Daisy Aid – What are the emotional appeals? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=63h_v6uf0Ao&noredirect=1
Who is the target audience? • What feelings/emotions do you think it stirs up in an audience? • Do you think this campaign ad was effective?
Use emotional appeals to your advantage • Use language choices that build common ground and good will • Touch the hearts of your listeners (Careful – you need the right balance) Choose words that can motivate your audience Use stories, comparisons, and testimony that the audience can relate to. Connect to the audience’s experiences
Motive Needs • Maslow’ Hierarchy of Needs • A classification of fundamental human needs often cited to explain human motivations was developed by Abraham Maslow, psychologist, in 1943.
The following categories represent the needs and wants that impel human beings to think, act and respond as they do.
Hierarchy of Motive Needs • Physiological Needs – food, drink, air, sleep • Safety Needs, Security, stability, protection from harm or injury • Belongingness and Love – warm affection, social groups, acceptance and approval
Esteem Needs – self esteem based on achievement, mastery, competence, confidence, freedom, independence, desire for esteem (reputation, prestige, recognition, status) • Self actualization – for self-fulfillment, actually to become what you potentially can be, desire to actualize your capabilities,
Motivational appeals Motivational appeals are either: 1) a visualization of a desire and method for satisfying it. 2)An assertion that an entity, idea, or course of action holds the key to fulfilling a particular motive need. Example: You want your parents to pay for a trip of Europe over the summer. How would you prepare them?
You would create visualizations to appeal to your parents’ needs. • Appeal to their sense of love and respect. • Companionship and belongingness • Educational value – self actualization You would organize the appeals into visualization through language choices and stories
Attribution • Attaching a motivational concept directly to another concept. • You attribute certain concepts to the concept you are wanting the audience to accept • Example: BE ALL THAT YOU CAN BE – Join the ARMY • Bravery, adventure, mastery, patriotism – self actualization
Motivational appeals are used to arouse in their listeners a particular feeling, emotion, or desire in an attempt to stimulate one or more of the primary motive needs.
Common Motivational Appeals • Achievement Pride • Adventure and Courage Reverence • Companionship and affiliation Revulsion • Creativity Sympathy • Curiosity Empathy • Deference Generosity • Fear Effiency • Independence Savings • Enjoyment • Power