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  1. WORLD WAR I The Great War

  2. Why is World War I significant? • all countries in Europeare involved (30 nations) • rearranges the map of Europe • sets up World War II (Treaty of Versailles is crucial)

  3. Underlying Causes • Hadn’t been a war in Europe in over 100 years, but conflict was brewing • Four MAIN Causes • M — Militarism (Arms Race) nations begin to build up, goal is to see who can get most arms, ex. England vs. Germany • A—Alliances - an alliance is an agreement between several nations in which they agree to intervene if another is attacked; Europe has a number of secret alliances • I —Imperialism: rapid production of goods leads to increased competition for colonies, markets and trade; countries in Europe (just like the US) desire more land, wealth, colonies. Leads to conflict. Nations compete to get the most colonies. • N—Nationalism: loyalty to one’s nation, belief that your nation is the best Problem: Serbians live in both Serbia and Austria-Hungary (in Bosnia) Serbs in Bosnia want to be Serbian; “my country is better than yours” -- I’ll prove it

  4. Proximate Cause (Sparking Event) • June 28, 1914 • Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary (A-H) and his wife Sofia are assassinated in Sarajevo by a member of the Black Hand. (Serbian terrorist group) • His death is important because he is heir to A-H throne and A-H gets ticked off.

  5. Choosing Sides • Central Powers • Austria-Hungary • Germany • (Kaiser Wilhelm) • Bulgaria • Ottoman Empire • Allied Powers • Serbia, Russia • (Nicholas II) • France • Belgium • Great Britain • (Lloyd George) • Italy (1915) • Japan In 1914 — the United States is Neutral

  6. US Involvement • The Problem with Neutrality • Wilson says that the US needs to be “Impartial in thought as well as deed” • Three issues destroy neutrality • Economic ties to the allies (Trade) • Submarine warfare • Psychological and ethnic ties to the allies

  7. Problems with Trade • Britain cut off German military supplies (Blockade coast) • Germany develops U-boats (subs) to counter blockade and cut off British trade (food) • Britain and Germany block American trade - because neither one wanted US trading w/ the enemy • Economic Links to Allies • US in economic recession prior to WWI -- but orders for war supplies from Allies turn the economy around • Trade with Germany slips down to almost nothing, while trade with Allies quadruples • US tolerates British blockade, but not Germany subs • US Banks (like JP Morgan’s) loan millions of dollars to Allies -- allows the Allies to keep fighting and improves US economy

  8. Submarine Warfare • Germans warn that all ships entering the waters around the British Isles are subjected to be sunk • Lusitania (May 1915) passenger ship sunk by German U-boat, • 128 Americans die • may have been carrying ammunition as well as passengers -- passengers warned not to travel on Lusitania • Wilson protests • Nothing happened

  9. Submarine Warfare • Sussex Incident (1916) • Germans attack an unarmed French boat -- a few Americans are injured -- Wilson protests again -- this time the Germans agree not to not to attack any unarmed passenger ships without warning • “Sussex Pledge”

  10. American Public Opinion • Most favored Allies • many Americans are of British descent & Britain controlled all news from Europe -- they cut out the stuff that makes Allies look bad • Recent immigrants identify with their country of origin • Americans have had good relationships with France since the Revolution • Britain and France are democracies -- Germany and Austria-Hungary are monarchies • Some Favored Central Powers • German Americans -- For obvious reasons • Irish Americans -- They hate the British

  11. Reason for Neutrality • Americans mostly like making money off the war and staying out of war!! • Preparedness • some Americans think that we need to “prepare” in case we go to war (Teddy Roosevelt) • Opposition/Pacifists • Other Americans HATE the War (West, Midwest, Populists, Progressives, Socialists) • William Jennings Bryan, Jane Addams, Jeanette Rankin (1st woman in Congress)

  12. The Final Straw • Unrestricted Submarine Warfare (Jan. 1917) • Early January 1917 -- Germany decided to pursue “unrestricted submarine warfare” • Tell Wilson on January 31st , he cuts off diplomatic ties • Zimmerman Telegraph (March 1, 1917) • March 1, 1917 - coded message from Germany to Mexico • Says if Mexico attacks US, Germany will help Mexico take back Arizona, New Mexico and Texas • British intercepted, decoded and sent to the US • Russian Revolution (March 15, 1917) • Czar Nicholas II of Russia is toppled from power and Russia is taken over by a republican government (no communists yet) • Russia not a monarchy -- now it is a war between democracy & autocratic rule

  13. Declaration of War • April 2, 1917 — Wilson asks US Congress for declaration of war • “To make the world safe for Democracy” -- moral diplomacy • April 6, 1917: Congress voted “Yes” except for 6 senators: Robert LaFollette and Jeanette Rankin Germany and the US are in a race: Germany thinks it can defeat the Allies BEFORE the US can really intervene: Who is right?

  14. Mobilization and Finance • At first send $, supplies, arms, food, but not men • Financing the War • War bonds • Selective Service — May 1917 • US passes “Selective Service Act” (the draft) • American Expeditionary Force (AEF) (Doughboys) — June 1917 • US War dept. sends John J. Pershing and 14,500 men to Europe’s western Front • American Forces in Europe, kept separate from European Troops and segregated as well • Doughboys: nickname for American troops

  15. New Technology & Old Tactics • Tactics • trench warfare • New technologies of WWI • Machine Gun • New artillery • Tanks • U-boats • Airplanes • (initially used to spy, later fitted with machine guns) • Poison gas • Barbed wire

  16. The War • Eastern Front — Along border with Russia • Nov. 1917 - Civil War in Russia, Bolshevik Revolution, Lenin takes over, • March 3, 1918 - Front Closes when Lenin makes peace with Germany • “Separate Peace” -- Treaty of Bresk-Litovsk(will make the Allies very bitter towards Russia/USSR) • Western Front — Mostly France- Central Powers and Allies push each other back and forth to gain a few yards of territory • June 1918 - Germans advance w/in 50 miles of Paris • August 1918 - German Advance stopped at Amiens • Sept. 1918 - Fresh American troops push the Germans back to Germany • Allies demand total surrender

  17. The War Ends The Eleventh Hour of the Eleventh Day of the Eleventh Month” (1918) • Germany realizes defeat • Armistice: “Cease-fire” Nov. 11, 1918 • Treaty of Versailles: Ends WWI - June 1919

  18. Post War Policy • Paris Peace Conference: Held beginning in December 1918 • David Lloyd George, prime minister of Great Britain • Georges Clemenceau, president of France • Vittorio Orlando, prime minister of Italy • Woodrow Wilson, president of the United States • formulated the general terms of the treaties ending WWI • Treaty of Versailles • Signed in June 1919, it was the peace treaty that ended WWI • The treaty failed to receive approval of the Senate • because it provided for the creation of the League of Nations. • Finally on August 25, 1921, a joint resolution declaring the war to be over was adopted by Congress

  19. Wilson’s Plan • Fourteen Points • Presented by Wilson in address to Congress on January 8, 1918, as the basis for peace terms at the end of WWI • Espoused belief in the right of all peoples to self-determination • Also Included: freedom of the seas, open covenants, adjustment of colonial claims with respect for native populations, free trade, reductions in armaments, and impartial mediation of colonial claims. • Proposed a League of Nations • an association of nations that would aid in implementing the new principles and in resolving future controversies. • League of Nations • On January 25, 1919, at the Paris Peace Conference, the Allies voted to accept the creation of the League of Nations • Assembly of nations would oversee world affairs and prevent future wars • U.S. Senate rejected the treaty of which the league was a part. • In 1946, the United Nations replaced the League of Nations