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Cognitive Abilities

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Cognitive Abilities

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  1. Cognitive Abilities Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

  2. Outline • Theory of Intelligence • Intelligence Testing • Influences on Intelligence • General Issues in Intelligence Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

  3. Hierarchical Theory of Intelligence Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

  4. Hierarchical Theory of Intelligence • Fluid Intelligence: Reason abstractly on novel problems • Deductive Reasoning • Inductive Reasoning • Quantitative Reasoning • Crystallized Intelligence: Accumulation of knowledge and skill in familiar domains • Vocabulary • Information about culture Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

  5. Implications • Students who tend to do well in one class tend to do well in other classes • We need to teach both reasoning skills and crystallized knowledge in all domains Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

  6. Intelligence Testing • Alfred Binet • Studied animal magnetism • Scientific embarrassment influenced strict empiricism • Created first intelligence test to identify children who would not profit from instruction Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

  7. Intelligence Testing • Intelligence Quotient: Mental Age Chronological Age x100 Mental Age Chronological Age Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

  8. Intelligence Testing • Deviation IQ: Statistical comparison to others in group • Purpose: Compare child’s performance to others in similar circumstances Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

  9. Influences on Intelligence • Genetics • Children: Genetics influences about ½ of differences in intelligence • Adults: Genetics tends to account for more differences • Environment • Cultural experiences • Family environment • Schooling • Occupation • Biology • Nutrition • Lead • Parental alcohol consumption • Perinatal Factors Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

  10. Genetics vs. Environment Genetics 50% Environment 50% Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

  11. Implications • The environment has substantial influence over intelligence, so create a classroom environment that fosters high intelligence • Reading • Ask students to solve new problems • Ask students deep questions Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

  12. General Issues for Intelligence • Ubiquitous: Wide-spread • Multivariate: Multiple components • Increases with age and experience • The Flynn Effect • Is education’s most important: • Raw material • Product Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

  13. Importance of Intelligence • Correlates with: • School performance • Years of education • Directionality? • Social status and income • Third variable? • Job Performance • Juvenile Crime (Negative) • Directionality? Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

  14. Reading Vocabulary Across Grades Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

  15. Flynn Effect: Average IQ over time Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

  16. Revision • Explain the hierarchical theory of intelligence, including the difference between fluid and crystallized intelligence. • Describe the three major factors that influence intelligence. • What is the difference between the Intelligence Quotient and the Deviation IQ? • Explain why studying cognitive abilities is important for educators (hint: General Issues for Intelligence) Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos