HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING Dr. Mayez Al-Mouhamed Professor, Computer Engineering Department King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals
Content • Why do we need powerful computers? • HPC: Modeling Difficult Problems • HPC Can Deliver Complex Solutions • HPC: One Super Processor! • Parallel Architecture • Parallel Programming • HPC: Example of Petroleum Reservoir Simulation • Data Parallel Organization and Gridding • Probabilistic Region Labeling • Integrating 3D Data for Optimized Well Engineering • Simulating Reservoir on HPC: Efficient Well Engineering! • Conclusion
Why do we need powerful computers? • Traditional engineering paradigm • Do theory or paper design. • Perform experiments or build system. • Limitations • Too difficult • Too expensive • Too slow • Too dangerous • Computational science paradigm • Use HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTERS to simulate the phenomenon. • Based on known physical laws and efficient numerical methods.
HPC: Modeling Difficult Problems • Bioscience, Biotechnology, Genetics • 3 billion Nucleotides in human genome: disease causing genes • Geology, Seismology • Seismological simulation (reservoir) to locate undiscovered petroleum reserves • Chemistry, Molecular Sciences (Comp. Fluid Dynamics, Pharmaceutical, Thermoplastic and Rubber, Catalysts for Chemical and Petrochemical) • Physics - applied, nuclear, particle, condensed matter, high pressure, fusion, etc. • Etc. Blaise Barney, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
HPC Can deliver Complex Solutions • Computational Biology and Bioinformatics: protein folding; drug design • http://cbsu.tc.cornell.edu/index.htm • Computational Genomics: DNA genome sequence • http://www.genomics.cornell.edu/focus_areas/computational/ Computational Materials: Simulation of materials microstructures http://www.tc.cornell.edu/Research/CMI/index.asp Financial and economic modeling: planning, forecasting, computational solution http://www.ctc manhattan.com/Research/index.asp
HPC: One Super Processor! The Speed-of-Light Argument The speed of light is about 30 cm/ns. Signals travel at a fraction of speed of light (say, 1/3). If signals must travel 1 cm during the execution of an instruction, that instruction will take at least 0.1 ns; thus, performance will be limited to 10 GIPS. This limitation is eased by continued miniaturization, architectural methods such as cache memory, etc. One Super Processor! No: A fundamental limit does exist. Solution: A High-performance Computer is a collection of processors that cooperate to solve large problems fast
Parallel Architecture Definition: A parallel computer is a collection of processors that cooperate to solve large problems fast (Almasi and Gottlieb 1989) Sophomore: COE 205 Computer Organization Junior: COE 308 Computer Architecture Blaise Barney, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Parallel Programming What is Parallel Programming: A sequential program can be transformed to a parallel program, which can run on a parallel Computer, by using some parallel programming language or parallel constructs as extension to a programming language. • Senior: • COE 420 Parallel Computing • MSC: • COE 502 Parallel Architectures • PHD: • CSE 661 Parallel and Vector Architectures Blaise Barney, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
How Parallel Processors Cooperate! SHARING-MEMORY MESSAGE-PASSING Blaise Barney, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
HPC: Example of Petroleum Reservoir Simulation Integration of data from all sources (wells, cores, seismic, outcrops, well tests, etc.) Khalid Aziz Engineering Resources
Data Parallel Organization and Gridding • Solve reservoir equations at each grid point: • Fluid Dynamics • Thermodynamics Overwhelming amount of data!
Probabilistic Region Labeling • Colored 3D structure: • water (bleu), • rocks, sands (Green), • gazes (yellow), • oil (red). Gurpinar, 2001
Integrating 3D Data for Optimized Well Engineering OGJ Khalid Aziz Engineering Resources
Simulating Reservoir on HPC: Efficient Well Engineering! El Shargi field, Occidental (Khalid Aziz Engineering Resources)
Conclusion • High-Performance Computing (HPC) enables KSA to analyze and develop complex solutions for the Discovery/Utilization of Petroleum Reserves and for its Financial and Economic Planning in short time. • Where HPC jobs are located in KSA! • Saudi Aramco: High Performance Computing and Cloud Technologies, all kind of geosciences simulations • KAUST (Shaheen HPC): Saudi Arabia is building a supercomputer (with IBM) that could rank among the 10 most powerful systems in the world. • KACST ISU - NIXU (Riyadh, Jeddah, Al Khobar, Dammam): IBM and KACST are developing a plant using High Performance Computing, advanced analytics and visualisation • Saudi Business Machines: Experience in IBM clustering technology (High Performance Computing-CSM/xCAT). Experience in GPFS implementations and configuration in HPC Env. • Saudi High Performance Computing (SHPC) • Microsoft: HPC and Cloud Computing, Windows High Performance Computing • SABIC: SABIC - HPC in the Cloud, catalysts for chemical and petrochemical industries, thermoplastic industry and Rubber. • Oracle Developer Jobs In Riyadh • KFUPM (IBM 1350 Cluster, Tesla GPUs with CUDA) • KSA Ministry of Communication and Defense: Juniper Networks Enables Saudi Arabia Ministry of Communications & IT to Deliver Unified e-Government Program • Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Saudi Arabia • Etc.