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GIS & GI Science

GIS & GI Science

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GIS & GI Science

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  1. GIS & GI Science Lecture 1

  2. What is Geographic Information Systems? A set of tools for analyzing geographic data and making maps.

  3. Definitions • A computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data. • A combination of computer cartography and database management. • “A powerful set of tools for storing and retrieving at will, transforming and displaying spatial data from the real world for a particular set of purposes.” -Peter Burrough • “Automated systems for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis and display of spatial data.” -Keith Clarke

  4. “An information system that is designed to work with data referenced by spatial or geographic coordinates. In other words, a GIS is both a database system with specific capabilities for spatially-referenced data, as well as a set of operations for working with the data.” -Jack Estes • “A GIS is a special case of IS where the database consists of observations on spatially-distributed features, activities, or events which are definable in space as points, line and areas to retrieve data for ad hoc queries and analyses.” -Ken Duecker

  5. From: Geographic Information Systems and Science, 2nd ed. (Paul Longley, Michael Goodchild, David Maguire, and David Rhind) The Basics of GIS: http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/intro/intro.html

  6. GIS stores and sorts information in data layers

  7. GIS TRACKS OUR WEATHER

  8. GIS CAN FORCAST GEOLOGICAL TRENDS HAWAIIAN ISLANDS SEISMIC ACTIVITY INDEX

  9. GIS CAN MAP WILDLIFE POPULATIONS

  10. GIS CAN TRACK TIDAL CHANGES ALONG A COASTLINE

  11. GIS CAN TAKE YOU AROUND YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD AROUND YOUR CITY

  12. GI Science A discipline that incorporates cartography, remote sensing, and geographic information systems.

  13. The three elements of GI Science • Individual: Research dominated by cognitive science. Understanding spatial concepts, learning and reasoning about geographic data, and computer interaction. • Computer: Research about representation, adoption of new technologies, computation, and visualization. • Society: Research about issues of impacts and societal context.

  14. GIS Applications Modeling the Environment of the Salton Sea with GIS: http://www.wiley.com/legacy/wileychi/longley/feature5.html

  15. Advantages of GIS GIS maps • Are interactive • Allow for exploration and inquiry • Allow you to choose features of interest for display GIS allows you to view the world in ways pertinent to a specific industry or topic.

  16. History of GIS Lecture 2

  17. The Five Phases of Development • The Research Frontier • Experimentation and Practice • Commercial Phase • User-Dominance • Web-Based Internet GI-Science Web Based Timeline of GIS

  18. The Research Frontier:late 1950s to mid 1970s Individual Led Development • 1958 - NASA - Data Availability • 1968 - Apollo 8 - Returned 1st Images from Space • Lack of Computing Resources • 1960’s - Early computer mapping packages • Harvard - SYMAP, IMGRID, CALFORM • Isoline Maps • 1969 - Jack Dangermond began ESRI

  19. Experimentation and Practice: mid 1970s to early 1980s • National Agencies Driving Development • Government Funded Research • NOAA Established • NASA: huge data increase (SPOT, LandSat) • Role of the Individual Diminished

  20. Commercial Phase: mid 1980s • Corporate Software available - competition • PCs becoming popular - individual market opening up • Isolated systems running GIS & isolated data sets - minimal sharing of data • GPS becomes fully operational

  21. User Dominance: 1990s • Strong competition among software vendors • Databases began to become distributed • Internet becomes operational • Network accessibility more common • Development of Standards • Quality control • Data tracking (Metadata)

  22. Web-Based Internet GI Services Shiftlate 1990s - Present • Distributed and Interoperational Architecture • Data resides and is distributed over a network • Limitations - Requires high speed and wide bandwidth (Network Capacity) • Standardized Data • Data is not platform or program dependent • Google Earth, ArcWeb Explorer, National Map

  23. History of GIS (Longley & Goodchild 2005) • Controversy about the true history of GIS (parallel developments in North America, Europe, and Australia) • First period of innovation • Canada created the first GIS (1960s) • Second burst of innovation (late 1960s) • US planned to conduct the 1970 Census of population • The DIME program creates digital streets • Computers begin to be used for mapmaking (late 1960s) • (In 1995, Great Britain is the first country to have a complete digital map of the country) • 1950s: first military satellites took photos of the landscape • 1960s-1970s: from photography to remote sensing (sensing radiation from objects and converting wavelength values into an image); new civilian remote sensing systems (the LANDSAT satellite) • Modern GIS took off in the 1980s (computer hardware becomes affordable) • First GIS customers are forestry and natural resource agencies • First GIS computing system: $250,000; First GIS software: $100,000 • The GIS industry continues to grow: GIS software continues to grow, and computers continue to fall in price and increase in power

  24. GIS in the Workforce Lecture 3 http://geoinfo.sdsu.edu/hightech

  25. GIS is a key emerging and evolving industry, according to a U.S. Department of Labor 2003 report. http://www.doleta.gov:80/BRG/JobTrainInitiative/

  26. Advanced Manufacturing Aerospace Automotive Biotechnology Construction Energy Financial Services Geospatial Technology Health Care Homeland Security Hospitality Information Technology Retail Transportation The geospatial industry is a focus of president George W. Bush’s High Growth Job Training Initiative."Targeted Industries

  27. Investment in GISA Top High-Growth Industry • The market for geospatial technologies in 2002 was estimated at $5 billion. This market is projected to have annual revenues of $30 billion by 2005 • $20 billion in the remote sensing market and $10 billion in the geographical information systems (GIS) market. (Gaudet, Annulis,Carr) http://www.doleta.gov/BRG/pdf/Geospatial.pdf

  28. Careers in GISGIS is a cross-disciplinary field and is found in the classrooms of many academic departments including those listed below. • Agriculture • Architecture • Business • Education • Engineering • Humanities • Law • Library • Military Science • Natural Resource Management • Natural Sciences • Public Health and Medicine • Physical Sciences • Social Sciences @ ESRI http://www.gis.com/careers/geospatial_career.html

  29. What do GIS professionals do? GIS professionals use GIS to visualize, analyze, and model systems to help in the planning and decision-making processes of their organizations. They make geographic information accessible to scientists, planners, decision makers, and the public. @ ESRI http://www.gis.com/careers/geospatial_career.htm

  30. GIS careers typically include positions such as: • Cartographic designer • Computer programmer • Database administrator • Project manager • System administrator • Surveying • They also encompass business development, managerial, and administrative roles.

  31. GIS professionals are educated in three main ways: • Through special certificate programs at colleges and universities (most common) • Through degree programs at colleges and universities • As part of the curriculum in other specialties such as while pursuing an urban planning degree @ ESRI http://www.gis.com/careers/geospatial_career.html

  32. Getting Started with Geographic Information Systems (Clarke 2001) GIS is a Multibillion-Dollar Business • The field of GI Science has grown rapidly • Cost reductions in technology since 1982 • Almost every major academic institution in the US and many other countries now offers at least one GIS class • Most local, state, and federal agencies use GIS • GIS is also used by businesses, planners, architects, and people working with the physical environment

  33. GIS has a role in society • GIS is used in decision making • GIS is used in public settings like town meetings (Participatory GIS) • Different groups use the same GIS software and data in different ways • People determine the purpose of GIS