GIS & GI Science Lecture 1
What is Geographic Information Systems? A set of tools for analyzing geographic data and making maps.
Definitions • A computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data. • A combination of computer cartography and database management. • “A powerful set of tools for storing and retrieving at will, transforming and displaying spatial data from the real world for a particular set of purposes.” -Peter Burrough • “Automated systems for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis and display of spatial data.” -Keith Clarke
“An information system that is designed to work with data referenced by spatial or geographic coordinates. In other words, a GIS is both a database system with specific capabilities for spatially-referenced data, as well as a set of operations for working with the data.” -Jack Estes • “A GIS is a special case of IS where the database consists of observations on spatially-distributed features, activities, or events which are definable in space as points, line and areas to retrieve data for ad hoc queries and analyses.” -Ken Duecker
From: Geographic Information Systems and Science, 2nd ed. (Paul Longley, Michael Goodchild, David Maguire, and David Rhind) The Basics of GIS: http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/intro/intro.html
GIS TRACKS OUR WEATHER
GIS CAN FORCAST GEOLOGICAL TRENDS HAWAIIAN ISLANDS SEISMIC ACTIVITY INDEX
GIS CAN TAKE YOU AROUND YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD AROUND YOUR CITY
GI Science A discipline that incorporates cartography, remote sensing, and geographic information systems.
The three elements of GI Science • Individual: Research dominated by cognitive science. Understanding spatial concepts, learning and reasoning about geographic data, and computer interaction. • Computer: Research about representation, adoption of new technologies, computation, and visualization. • Society: Research about issues of impacts and societal context.
GIS Applications Modeling the Environment of the Salton Sea with GIS: http://www.wiley.com/legacy/wileychi/longley/feature5.html
Advantages of GIS GIS maps • Are interactive • Allow for exploration and inquiry • Allow you to choose features of interest for display GIS allows you to view the world in ways pertinent to a specific industry or topic.
History of GIS Lecture 2
The Five Phases of Development • The Research Frontier • Experimentation and Practice • Commercial Phase • User-Dominance • Web-Based Internet GI-Science Web Based Timeline of GIS
The Research Frontier:late 1950s to mid 1970s Individual Led Development • 1958 - NASA - Data Availability • 1968 - Apollo 8 - Returned 1st Images from Space • Lack of Computing Resources • 1960’s - Early computer mapping packages • Harvard - SYMAP, IMGRID, CALFORM • Isoline Maps • 1969 - Jack Dangermond began ESRI
Experimentation and Practice: mid 1970s to early 1980s • National Agencies Driving Development • Government Funded Research • NOAA Established • NASA: huge data increase (SPOT, LandSat) • Role of the Individual Diminished
Commercial Phase: mid 1980s • Corporate Software available - competition • PCs becoming popular - individual market opening up • Isolated systems running GIS & isolated data sets - minimal sharing of data • GPS becomes fully operational
User Dominance: 1990s • Strong competition among software vendors • Databases began to become distributed • Internet becomes operational • Network accessibility more common • Development of Standards • Quality control • Data tracking (Metadata)
Web-Based Internet GI Services Shiftlate 1990s - Present • Distributed and Interoperational Architecture • Data resides and is distributed over a network • Limitations - Requires high speed and wide bandwidth (Network Capacity) • Standardized Data • Data is not platform or program dependent • Google Earth, ArcWeb Explorer, National Map
History of GIS (Longley & Goodchild 2005) • Controversy about the true history of GIS (parallel developments in North America, Europe, and Australia) • First period of innovation • Canada created the first GIS (1960s) • Second burst of innovation (late 1960s) • US planned to conduct the 1970 Census of population • The DIME program creates digital streets • Computers begin to be used for mapmaking (late 1960s) • (In 1995, Great Britain is the first country to have a complete digital map of the country) • 1950s: first military satellites took photos of the landscape • 1960s-1970s: from photography to remote sensing (sensing radiation from objects and converting wavelength values into an image); new civilian remote sensing systems (the LANDSAT satellite) • Modern GIS took off in the 1980s (computer hardware becomes affordable) • First GIS customers are forestry and natural resource agencies • First GIS computing system: $250,000; First GIS software: $100,000 • The GIS industry continues to grow: GIS software continues to grow, and computers continue to fall in price and increase in power
GIS in the Workforce Lecture 3 http://geoinfo.sdsu.edu/hightech
GIS is a key emerging and evolving industry, according to a U.S. Department of Labor 2003 report. http://www.doleta.gov:80/BRG/JobTrainInitiative/
Advanced Manufacturing Aerospace Automotive Biotechnology Construction Energy Financial Services Geospatial Technology Health Care Homeland Security Hospitality Information Technology Retail Transportation The geospatial industry is a focus of president George W. Bush’s High Growth Job Training Initiative."Targeted Industries
Investment in GISA Top High-Growth Industry • The market for geospatial technologies in 2002 was estimated at $5 billion. This market is projected to have annual revenues of $30 billion by 2005 • $20 billion in the remote sensing market and $10 billion in the geographical information systems (GIS) market. (Gaudet, Annulis,Carr) http://www.doleta.gov/BRG/pdf/Geospatial.pdf
Careers in GISGIS is a cross-disciplinary field and is found in the classrooms of many academic departments including those listed below. • Agriculture • Architecture • Business • Education • Engineering • Humanities • Law • Library • Military Science • Natural Resource Management • Natural Sciences • Public Health and Medicine • Physical Sciences • Social Sciences @ ESRI http://www.gis.com/careers/geospatial_career.html
What do GIS professionals do? GIS professionals use GIS to visualize, analyze, and model systems to help in the planning and decision-making processes of their organizations. They make geographic information accessible to scientists, planners, decision makers, and the public. @ ESRI http://www.gis.com/careers/geospatial_career.htm
GIS careers typically include positions such as: • Cartographic designer • Computer programmer • Database administrator • Project manager • System administrator • Surveying • They also encompass business development, managerial, and administrative roles.
GIS professionals are educated in three main ways: • Through special certificate programs at colleges and universities (most common) • Through degree programs at colleges and universities • As part of the curriculum in other specialties such as while pursuing an urban planning degree @ ESRI http://www.gis.com/careers/geospatial_career.html
Getting Started with Geographic Information Systems (Clarke 2001) GIS is a Multibillion-Dollar Business • The field of GI Science has grown rapidly • Cost reductions in technology since 1982 • Almost every major academic institution in the US and many other countries now offers at least one GIS class • Most local, state, and federal agencies use GIS • GIS is also used by businesses, planners, architects, and people working with the physical environment
GIS has a role in society • GIS is used in decision making • GIS is used in public settings like town meetings (Participatory GIS) • Different groups use the same GIS software and data in different ways • People determine the purpose of GIS