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The Growth of Democracy (1860s—1914)

The Growth of Democracy (1860s—1914). Great Britain: Tories vs. Whigs. Tory party (Conservative) led by Benjamin Disraeli Wanted to preserve power of monarchy and social status of upper class Worked to prevent working class reform that would change power base

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The Growth of Democracy (1860s—1914)

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  1. The Growth of Democracy (1860s—1914)

  2. Great Britain: Tories vs. Whigs • Tory party (Conservative) led by Benjamin Disraeli • Wanted to preserve power of monarchy and social status of upper class • Worked to prevent working class reform that would change power base • Whigs (Liberals) led by William Gladstone • Wanted to make the liberals the party of reform • Wanted to reduce the power of the monarchy • Wanted to expand suffrage to all males

  3. The Second Reform Act (1867) • surprisingly the Conservatives in the House of Commons led by Benjamin Disraeli allow a large number of working class males who were “heads of households” to vote • Wanted to beat the liberals at their own game of reform, BUT it backfired!! • Newly franchised males will provided liberals with victory in 1868 • the new prime minister elected is a liberal, William Gladstone • 1st of four terms as Prime Minister • Over the next 30 years, power will alternate between both parties

  4. The Great Ministry of Gladstone(1868—1874) Liberal changes • freedom of religion and class • Labor unions were legalized • competitive exams replace patronage for civil service • voting by secret ballot • The Education Act of 1870 – established that the government, not the church would run the elementary schools • Third Reform Bill of 1885—Largely granted universal male suffrage

  5. Disraeli as Prime Minister (1874—1880) • Wanted to support the “common good” for the people • Food and Drug Act—gov’t regulation the sale of food and drugs based on inspection • Public Health Act of 1875 – reaffirmed duty of the state to interfere with private property to protect health and physical well-being • Artisan Dwelling Act of 1875 – government becomes actively involved in providing housing for the working class • Protection of trade unions and the allowance of picket lines

  6. The Irish Question • Gladstone, again prime minister in 1880 has to deal with the Irish wanting home rule – Irish control of local government • The Irish wanted • Irish Catholics no longer had to pay for the Anglican Church • compensation provided for Irish tenants who were evicted from their land • tenant rights for Irish established to prevent eviction • Coercion Act passed to restore law and order to Ireland and suppress home rule demand • home rule, supported by Gladstone is defeated over and over again between 1886 and 1914, when the rule was finally passed, but then suspended due to World War I

  7. Social Reform in Great Britain • During the 1880s and 1890s, some radical groups emerged promoting increased social philosophies of gov’t • The First International was a mixture of socialists, anarchist, and labor groups based on the ideas of Karl Marx • Short-lived, but will lead to other groups • British socialism – non Marxist – most influential group the Fabian Society- favored gradual, peaceful approach to social reform

  8. The Labour Party • Created in 1893 • Became a vocal third party in Britain • Attracted trade unionists, socialists, and those who thought the Conservative and Liberal parties had no interest in the needs of the public

  9. Aggressive Social and Economic Reforms • under Liberal Chancellor David Lloyd George, Britain regulates trade, provides unemployment benefits and health care to appease the Labour Party • Ramsay MacDonald became the first Labour Party Prime Minister • The three parties competed for power into the beginning of WWI • Issues on trade unions, Ireland, and women’s suffrage continue to be hot topics

  10. Summary: Britain • Before WWI, Britain laid the foundation for its social welfare state: gov’t institutions and laws that guarantee all citizens a decent standard of living • Rights of unions to strike was legalized; gov’t insurance for those hurt on the job; unemployment insurance and old-age pensions were enacted; compulsory school attendance law went into effect

  11. France--Louis Napoleon • Following the overthrow of conservative Louis Philippe in 1848, Louis Napoleon was President of the Second Republic • 1852 Louis Napoleon – the election of “Little Napoleon” leads to a dictatorship in which Louis is crowned Emperor Napoleon III. • Dedicates his presidency to law and order • Eradication of socialism and radicalism • Protecting the interests of the conservative classes

  12. The Second French Empire • Napoleon III controlled finances and legislation • Worked to improve infrastructure and stimulate the economy • Created public works to reduce unemployment • Popular amongst all classes due to general prosperity • Napoleon III was autocratic in power, but introduced reforms to satisfy his people

  13. Foreign Policy Woes • Suffered major casualties as a result of Crimean War • Backed down when the U.S. warned them of interference in Mexico • Franco-Prussian War was a disaster for the French • Germans crushed French and sieged Paris • Contribute to destabilization of Second Empire • Napoleon III captured by Prussians • Second Empire ends

  14. France Goes From Empire to Third Republic • The Paris Commune – radicals and socialists attempt to govern Paris away from the rest of France during the Prussian siege of Paris • Paris Commune is put down by the National Assembly at the cost of 20,000 lives / victory for the nation-state • The National Assembly was the recognized gov’t that Prussia would negotiate with • The Third Republic – when quarreling monarchists can’t agree on a new king, the National Assembly turns to a republic system • a Chamber of Deputies elected by universal male suffrage • a Senate chosen indirectly by gov’t officials • president elected by both legislative houses

  15. The Third Republic • Adopted a constitution and a republican gov’t • Issues plaguing the Republic • Extreme nationalism calling for revenge on Germany • Struggle between political factions within bourgeoisie (upper-middle class) • Between 1871 and 1914, the French gov’t fell dozens of times due to the multiparty system in which no party could win a majority in the Legislative Assesmbly

  16. The Boulanger Crisis • There was still heavy anti-republican support who wanted to overthrow the Third Republic • General Georges Boulanger was being groomed by the conservatives to overthrow the gov’t • When the threat coup d’etat was discovered by supporters of the republic, Boulanger was charged with treason and fled to Belgium • Conservative threat thwarted for now

  17. The Dreyfus Affair • French Captain Alfred Dreyfus(Jewish) is falsely accused of passing secret information to the Germans (1894) • After Dreyfus is convicted of treason, he is sent to Devil’s Island • Years later, evidence of forgery comes in that someone else was passing secrets to Germans, but Dreyfus is not acquitted • The major in the French army who was the actual spy was acquitted to save the pride and reputation of the French army • Dreyfus, who was Jewish, is still guilty according to the army, French Catholic Church, political conservatives, and anti-Semitic newspapers • Pro-monarchists claim the Third Republic is corrupt!

  18. liberal novelist Emile Zola, along with numerous liberals, radicals, and socialists call for a new trial for Dreyfus • president of France pardons Dreyfus and the conviction is set aside in 1906 • puts conservatives on the defensive for framing an innocent man and embracing anti-Semitism

  19. French Opportunism Rejected • After Dreyfus, French socialism called opportunism began to make strides • Supported by trade unionists and socialists • Opposed “corrupt” republican gov’t • Opportunism is rejected overall • French socialists form their own party, the Socialist Party, and begin gaining seats in the Chamber of Deputies • The demands of workers led by the Socialist Party became a major issue in France between 1905 and 1914

  20. Summary: France • The multiparty system of France did promote democracy • By WWI, universal suffrage existed in France • A social welfare system existed which was similar to Britain • Extension of suffrage and improvement of living conditions for all citizens • Even through Boulanger Crisis and Dreyfus Affair, the vast majority of French citizens supported the Third Republic

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