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FATIGUE PowerPoint Presentation


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  2. What is Fatigue • Fatigue can be defines as extreme tiredness resulting from mental or physical illness. • Fatigue also is the bodies reaction to a physical or mental stress of a prolonged duration.

  3. Fatigue • Fatigue is noted by aviation community for many years as having a strong impact on flight safety and efficiency. • As length of fatigue increases, performance may decrease, consequently lead to aircraft mishaps.

  4. Types of Fatigue • There are TWO types of fatigue. • ACUTE ... short duration, recovered with good nights sleep. • CHRONIC ... occurs over a period long period of time, long recovery!

  5. Acute fatigue • Acute fatigue • Results from repeating tasks during long flights or from numerous repetitive short flights • Very common • Healthy persons recover with rest / sleep • Symptoms • Tiredness • Lack of Energy • Loss of coordination • Inattention to details

  6. Chronic fatigue • Chronic fatigue • Occurs when recovery time is insufficient • Overlapping with factors of acute fatigue

  7. Causes of Fatigue • Lack of Restful Sleep- Unable to allow sleep to take over. • Works too hard.-Body used up great deal of Energy. • Dehydration- Body lose a large amount of water. • Caffeine- Too much caffeine keeps the body in a high degree of alertness, even to the point of being tense (unable to relax).

  8. Causes of Fatigue • Long hours of working. • Stress of high intensity. • Large temperature variations. • Noise and Vibration for long periods. • STRONG lighting.

  9. Symptoms of Fatigue • Attention reduced- take longer time for decision making. • Short memory loss -quickly forgot command given by ATC. • Fixation- focus one thing only, ignore other important.

  10. How to avoid Fatigue • Sleep • Know personal requirements • Physical conditioning • Exercise & recreation • Proper diet • Wear & use protection stuffs • Hearing protection • Oxygen at altitude

  11. How to avoid Fatigue • Vary the routine • Avoid dehydration • Water & snacks • Personal concerns • Personal problems brought to work

  12. Sleep • Our sleep/wake cycle is closely tied to our body temperature. • The duration and “quality” of sleep is dependent upon body temperature. • The important is the timing and quality of sleep, not the amount of sleep.

  13. How much sleep do you really need? • Sleep requirements vary dramatically among individuals. • A minimum of 5 hours of uninterrupted “core” sleep is enough. • Sleeping in excess of 10 hours may produce sleep habit.

  14. Napping • When sleep is not available or shortened by operational concerns, combat naps are an alternative. • Even naps as short as 10 min are good to prevent the individual feeling more tired.

  15. Human PerformanceStress & Fatigue 12 am 12 noon 12 am 3 - 5 am 3 - 5 pm + _ Performance level

  16. Human PerformanceStress & Fatigue • Generally, the lowest performance, alertness, and mood occur twice a day: from 3 am to 5 am, and to a lesser extent, again from 3 pm to 5 pm. • During these time periods, errors are more likely to occur in judgment and reaction time.

  17. Case Study • There are many documented accidents happened due to pilot fatigue as the leading cause. • One of them occurred in June 1999 fatal runway accident of American Airlines Flight 1420 in which a McDonnell Douglas MD-82overran the end of the runway, and impacted approach light structuresafter landing at the Adams Field Airport in Little Rock, Arkansas. • Thunderstorms and heavy rain were reported in the area at the time of the accident. • There were 11 fatalities, including the aircraft captain, and numerous injuries among the 145 passengers and crew aboard the flight.

  18. Stress & Fatigue Flight AA 1420 landing crash at Little Rock, AR June 1, 1999

  19. Synopsis • As the aircraft approached Runway 4R, a severe thunderstorm arrived over the airport. • ATC inform the pilot that aircraft can’t landing due to poor visibility on a wet runway. • With that information, plus two wind shear reports, the approach should have been cancelled at that point. • But, the captain decided to continue his approach to Runway 4R.

  20. Synopsis • During their rush to land as soon as possible, both pilots became overloaded (stress & fatigue) with many important tasks. • That led to errors . They failed to activate the automatic ground spoiler system . • The pilots also failed to activate the auto braking system , to ensure the aircraft can stop on a wet runway.

  21. Synopsis • After landing, the first officer stated, "We're down. We're sliding." • Neither pilot observed that the spoilers did not deploy, so there was no attempt to activate them manually. • The result was almost no braking at all, because the wings were still "flying.“ • Directional control was lost when the captain applied too much reverse thrust.

  22. Synopsis • The aircraft skidded off the far end of the runway at high speed • Finally came to a stop on the banks of the Arkansas River.

  23. Solutions for the Fatigue problems Fatigue in pilots can be reduced or eliminated with simple and practical steps perform by: • FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) • Airlines • Individual Crew Members

  24. Solutions for the Fatigue problems 1) FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) Laws. • FAA shouldenforce laws concerning the conduct of airlines and pilots. • FAA shouldregulates certain activities which may affect fatigue, such as alcohol , drug use and medical certification requirements.

  25. WORK RULES FOR PILOTS • Pilots can fly up to eight hours a day. • A workday, which includes flight preparation time on the ground, can extend up to 16 hours. • Pilots can fly up to 100 hours per month on domestic flights. • Source: Federal Aviation Administration

  26. Solutions for the Fatigue problems 2) Airlines Role • The airline should reduce the chances of errors due to fatigue by providing good management in terms of crew working hours and flight schedule. • Flight should be delay during the bad weather.

  27. Solutions for the Fatigue problems • 3) Individual Crew Members • It is in their hands to take the necessary steps to remain safe and alert. • Planning to get enough sleep before a trip is the most obvious step. • Another step would be to eat properly and had an exercise. This will make the pilot healthier and more alert. • They must drinking plenty of water, especially during a flight, and avoid coffee, sodas and alcohol. • They can wear noise-reducing headsets if the cockpit is loud. They must stay home when they are ill, for their own sake and for their fellow crew members. • Crew (pilot) should cancel the take-off or landing during the bad weather

  28. Question • One of the major causes of aircraft accident is crew fatigue. • Define fatigue (2 Marks) • Explain why fatigue can cause accident (6 Marks) • How an airline can overcome this problem amongst its crew members. (7 Marks)