Got Breakfast? Daniel Vo
Why is breakfast important? Missing breakfast and experiencing hunger impair children’s ability to learn • Children who skip breakfast are less able to distinguish among similar images, show increased errors, and have slower memory recall. (Pollitt E et al. 1998, Pollitt E et al 1981) • Children experiencing hunger have lower math scores and are more likely to have to repeat a grade. (Alaimo K 2001) • Children experiencing hunger are more likely to be hyperactive, absent and tardy, in addition to having behavioral and attention problems more often than other children. (Murphy JM et al 1998)
Why is breakfast important? Breakfast may reduce obesity risk • Adolescents who eat breakfast tend to have a lower body mass index (Barton BA et al 2005) • Adolescents with one or two obese parents who eat breakfast every day are more likely to have BMIs within a healthy range than those who tend to skip breakfast. (Fiore, H. “Potentially Protective Factors”)
Why do poor kids miss breakfast? • Commutes • Latch key kids • Larger families with many children • Poverty • Non conventional work schedules
Nation Nutrition Programs 1946 – National School Lunch Act (NSLA) signed by President Truman 1968 – Summer Program Established School Breakfast Program Established 1969 – White House conference on hunger Nixon: “the time as come to end hunger in America.” 1995 – Republicans wish to decrease SBP expansion, Al Gore and Jesse Jackson stage “lunch-in” at the Capital 1998 – Murphy et al. Havard study shows increased academic performance and decreased absenteeism 2000s – the most exciting stuff is yet to come
Statistics In Fiscal Year 2006, over 9.7 million children participated every day. Of those, 7.9 million received their meals free or at a reduced-price. For Fiscal Year 2006, the School Breakfast Program cost $2.0 billion
School Breakfast Program Who qualifies? Free meals: children in families at or below 130% of the poverty level Reduced price meals: 130% to 185% of the poverty level 130% of FPL is $26,845 for a family of four; 185% is $38,203 No doc of household income or benefit receipt is required at the time of application Nutritional requirements? Dietary Guidelines for Americans: no more than 30% of calories from fat less than 10% from saturated fat 1/4 of the RDA for protein, calcium, iron, Vitamin A, Vitamin C and calories Specific menus are made by local school food authorities
School Breakfast Program Reimbursements to schools During the 2004-2005 school year, schools were reimbursed $1.23 in federal funds for each free breakfast $0.93 for each reduced price breakfast and $0.23 for each paid breakfast.
Outcomes Murphy et al. 1998 133 Students before and after participation in school breakfast program Students who increased their participation in the school breakfast program had significantly greater increases in their math grades and significantly greater decreases in the rates of school absence and tardiness than children whose participation remained the same or decreased. Child and teacher ratings of psychosocial problems also decreased to a significantly greater degree for children with increased participation in the school breakfast program.
Cons to the Breakfast Program • Are students participating? Depends on your state • Sustainability? Millions of meals the department serves each year — both breakfast and lunch — are rivaled in number only by the United States armed forces • Are target groups being served? APEC Study by USDA showing increasing numbers of children erroneously certified for free or reduced-price meals Children who apply and are eligible but are erroneously denied benefit Between 1997–1998 and 1998–1999, higher income children—that is, those not certified for free or reduced-price meals—accounted for two-thirds of the growth in SBP participation Non documented immigrants
Other controversies • Tracing the money • USDA • Buy American Provision • Competitive foods
Current Issues • Where to eat breakfast in school? • Other nation food services School lunch Summerfood programs Special Milk WIC