Chapter 1 Biology: The Study of Life I. What is biology? A. The Science of Biology 1. Biology is the study of life 2. The key aspect of biology is learning about the different types of living things around you. 3. One of the most general principles in biology is that living things do not exist in isolation; they are functioning parts in the balance of nature.
B. Biologists Study the Diversity of Life Biologists study the interactions of the environment 1. Because no species, including humans, can exist in isolation, the study of biology must include the investigation of interactions among species. Biologists study problems and purpose solutions 1. Biological research can lead to advances in medical treatment and disease prevention in humans and in other species. C. Characteristics of Living Things 1. Living things are organized a. To be organized is to show orderly structure
2. Living things make more living things a. Reproduction is the production of offspring b. Reproduction is essential for the continuation of the organism’s species c. A species is a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring in nature 3. Living things change during their lives a. Growth results in the increase in the amount of living material and the formation of new structures b. All of the changes that take place during the life of an organism are know as its development
4. Living things adjust to their surroundings a. Environment, which includes the air, water, temperature, any other organisms in the area, and many other factors b. Any condition in the environment that requires an organism to adjust is a stimulus c. A reaction to a stimulus is a response d. Regulation of an organism’s internal environment to maintain conditions suitable for its survival is called homeostasis e. Energy is the ability to do work
5. Living things adapt & evolve a. Any structure, behavior, or internal process that enables an organism to respond to stimuli and better survive in an environment is called an adaptation b. The gradual accumulation of adaptations over time is evolution II. The Methods of Biology A. Observing and Hypothesizing 1. The methods biologists use to gather info and answer questions are scientific methods a. observation- observing and gathering info
b. hypothesis- educated guess c. experimenting- a procedure that tests a hypothesis by the process of collecting info under controlled conditions 1. Some experiments involve 2 groups: a. the control group- all conditions are kept the same b. the experimental group- all conditions are kept the same except for the single condition being tested 2. Controlled experiment has 2 types of variables: a. independent: variable you apply changes to b. dependent: depends on the independent variable
d. collect results 2. Maintaining Safety: A safety symbol is a symbol that warns you abut a danger that may exit from chemicals, electricity, or heat. 3. Data gathering is sometimes referred to as experimental results. See Table 1.1 page 15 4. A scientific theory is an explanation of things or events based on knowledge gained from observations and investigations. (explains how) 5. A scientific law is a statement about what happens in nature and that seems to be true all the time. (explains why)
III. The Nature of Biology A. Kinds of Information 1. Two Types of Research: a. Quantitative research involves numerical data b. Qualitative research involves observational data 2. Measuring in the International System (SI) a. One advantage of SI is that there are only a few basic units, and nearly all measurements can be expressed in these units or combinations of them
Metric System International System of Units (1960 devised); universally accepted B. Science & Society 1. What is ethics? 2. Define the term technology.