Chapters I - IV Review
Nouns - Endings • Endings are important! Endings show case, number and gender of the nouns. • What gender are most 1st declension nouns? • 1st declension nouns are all feminine (except words of occupations) • What gender are most 2nd declension nouns? • 2nd declension nouns are mostly masculine (with a few neuters –what does neuter mean) • Cases (represented by endings) show HOW a noun is used in the sentence by identifying which part of speech a noun will represent.
Nouns - Cases • Nominative Case – used for subjects or predicate nominatives - other nouns that ‘equal’ (or are the same as) the subject, and that are in the predicate – known as predicate nominatives. Sentences that include ‘being verbs’ will have predicate nominatives. • Predicate – The predicate is the verb and everything else in the sentence EXCEPT the subject. • Accusative Case – used for direct objects. Direct objects receive the action of the verb. I threw the pen. What did I throw? Direct Objects are used in sentences with ACTION verbs
Nouns - Declension • Declension – a group of nouns with the same pattern of endings. • 1st Declensions Nouns • All end in –a for nominative singular and –ae for genitive singular • All follow the pattern of 1st Declension endings as shown on our posters • ALMOST all are feminine. (1st Decl. endings are feminine.) • Only some words of profession (occupation, work, etc.) are masculine(agricola, nauta, and poeta) • 2nd Declension Nouns • MOST are masculine, which follow the pattern of 2nd Declension endings on our posters. 2nd declension endings are masculine.
Adjectives • The ending of an adjective MUST agree with the ending of the noun it modifies, in case, number, and gender. • In Latin, adjectives most often follow the nouns they modify. • Be sure to put the adjective before the noun in an English translation. • If the adjective is part of the predicate with a ‘to be’ verb, put the adjective after the ‘to be’ or linking verb in a translation. • (Via est dura. The road is hard.)
Noun-Adjective Examples • Equus magnus • Aquam malam • Puellae parvae • Silvas bonas • Insula magna • Carros longos • Servi boni • Equum bonum
Verbs – What the subject ‘is’ or what the subject does. • A verb can be the entire predicate or just part of it • A verb tells us WHEN something is happening. Right now, we just know present tense. • Verbs communicate ACTION or STATE OF BEING (I am, you are, he is, we are, etc.)
A Conjugated VerbPresent Tense SINGULAR PLURAL I like amo we like amamus you like amas you like amatis he, she, or it likes amat they like amant
Subject-Verb Agreement • Verbs and subjects need to agree in person and number. • Puellaeequosamant. • Agricola laborat. The ‘t’ ending (he, she or it, agrees with the word farmer) • Insulamamamus. • Familiaelaborant. The –nt ending agrees with the word families. • Silvamspectatis. • Carrusfortunamportat.
Conjunctions ET - AND SED – BUT QUOD – BECAUSE or SINCE
Adverbs You Have Had Minime - no, not at all Sic - yes Non - not Nunc - now Ubi - where