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Palestine between the Wars

Palestine between the Wars

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Palestine between the Wars

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  1. Palestine between the Wars

  2. Palestine becomes a British Mandate • Mandate granted at San Remo Conference, implicit support for Jewish migration • Thus GB responsible for the region • Splits it as Palestine and Transjordan • World Zionist Organization had its definition • Sharif Hussein had his…. • Mayor of Jerusalem led a riot to protest the mandate • Arab response Syrian National Congress with Feisal son of SherifHussain • Feisal driven out by France and became ruler of Iraq. His brother Abdallah became king of Jordan. Descendants still rule Jordan

  3. The British Mandate Years • Mandate fulfilled British interests • Protect Suez canal • Access to Gulf oil resources • Administer mandate ot create loyal client states • And adhere to the terms of the mandate which allowed for Jewish Migration • High Commissioner : Administrative role • First HC: Herbert Samuel. Himself a Zionist and encouraged immigration • This in part contributed to Arab anger and riots of 1922 • Result: Creation of Transjordan. It was to be closed off to Jewish immigration

  4. British efforts in the region • In fulfilment of the Mandate, development of infrastructure : roads, railways, hospital, schools, Police , industry occurred. • However, rising tensions between Jewish and Arab populations • Frequent riots and strikes • British policy of concessions, commissions, negotiations fail and increasing use of force: riot police to break –up demonstrations • By 1930’s warlike situation in Palestine/

  5. Why tension? • Increased Jewish immigration in the 1930’s • Actions of the Jewish National Agency ( branch of the World Zionist Orgnaization) • Laying foundations of a state • Political parties created • Ma’pai ( workers ) Party under Ben Gurion took the lead • Elected Assembly • Set up the Hebrew University • Cooperated with British but determined to establish control over Jerusalem and the Wailing Wall. • This caused serious tensions in 1929 and major riots broke out.

  6. Palestinian response • Palestinian Arabs wanted end of British rule and Zionist immigration and settlement • Frequent recourse to riots • Arab resistance to land purchases by the Zionists • In 1930’s recourse to armed resistance • Resulted in British crackdown: deportations, prison sentences • In 1936 HajAmin al-Hussaini the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem openly allied with Hitler

  7. Palestinian institutions created during the Mandate years • Muslim Council formed in 1922 as protest against the Mandate • A powerful body and controlled Arab life and culture • Controlled by a branch of the al Husseini family • HajAmin al Husseini was its leader and spokesperson till he fled Jerusalem in1937 • Anti British, anti zionist • The other organization was the Arab Higher Committee….an offshoot of an earlier organizaiton and controlled by a rival family Nashashibi… this organzation was more pro-British • This division was to the detriment of the Palestinian cause

  8. Zionist Political institutions • According to the mandate: Zionists could buy land and settle in Palestine • Hence the Jewish Agency was created to manage the purchases • The Jewish Agency thus became the voice for Jews in Palestine • The Jewish community or Yishuv worked towards creating institutions • Knesset • Political Parties • Executive • Judicial system • Histadrut or trade unions • Haganah an underground force set up in 1920 Summing up: where the Arab community was divided , the Jewish Community was pushing the boundaries and creating the foundations of a modern state

  9. Overall pattern of migration • Inspite of the Balfour Declaration and the Mandate, immigration was slow • USA seen as the land of opportunity • By 1929 there were only 175, 000 Jews. • Population increase from 8- 17% • However very rapid increase from 1929, because of the Depression and Hitler’s policies • By the end of the war the figures stood at close to 40% • Jews mostly urban dwellers • Palestinian Arabs … worked the land, thus affected by the Depression more than were the Jews….

  10. The Arab Revolt 1936-1939

  11. British response • Peel Commission: it submitted its report in 1937 • For the first time the idea of Partition is suggested • Peel Commission report is followed by a Policy paper called the White Paper which slowed and then planned to halt Jewish Immigration into Palestine • White Paper rejected by both sides. Arabs wanted an end of the Mandate and the Jews wanted the terms of the Mandate to be applied

  12. WW2 and the Holocaust • Outbreak of WW2 brings with it Jewish support for the British. • Jewish Legion fought alongside British which gained them training in weapons • Post WWII flood of Jewish immigration to Palestine but not accepted by Britain/ • In the US strong support for the Jews. • The Biltmore program demanded the resumption of Jewish migration • USA for the first time gets involved in the Palestine question

  13. HW: • Read pages 99-105 Make notes on the following headings in your notebook • Impact of WWII on the Zionist cause • Harry Truman’s support of the Zionists • Biltmore Program and its significance • Split between Weizmann and Ben Gurion • Arab actions between 1939-1945 • British Policy towards Palestine 1945-1947 • Anglo American Committee of Enquiry