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  1. H istory R esearch R esources P roducts M anufacture M ulti-channel S ummary a g e n d a

  2. H istory R R M P M S esearch esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary Vision “World’s finest loudspeaker” January 1996 announcement: Speaker Company with unsurpassed resources: research, design, engineering and manufacture

  3. H istory R R M P M S esearch esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary Dr. Harman’s Plan Create a loudspeaker company as unsurpassed as

  4. H istory R R M P M S esearch esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary Plan

  5. H istory R R M P M S esearch esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary Target “World’s finest loudspeaker” Unsurpassedacoustic performance Highestquality Finest materials Impeccable finish Highest craftsmanship

  6. seeking the acoustic truth R e s e a r c h D e s i g n M a n u f a c t u r e M a n u f a c t u r e

  7. D E M R H istory R R M P M S esearch esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary Arrows What are the means to creating “the world’s finest loudspeakers”? Design Engineering Manufacture Research

  8. R H istory R R M P M S esearch esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary W o r l d leader in Research Research ushers in a new era ofmeasurement Engage internationally respected audio researchers Development of innovative methods to integrate listening tests

  9. R H istory R R M P M S esearch esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary W o r l d leader in Research Dr. Floyd Toole Director Product Development Harman International Focuses primarily on the acoustics and psychoacoustics of sound reproduction. Pioneered the now established methods of subjective and objective evaluations. Ph.D from Imperial College of Science, London Senior Research Officer, NRC 1988, 1990 AES Publication Award Member of ASA, Fellow of AES Past president of the AES

  10. R H istory R R M P M S esearch esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary W o r l d leader in Research Sean Olive Manager Subjective Evaluation Harman International 1990, 1995 AES Publication Awards 1996 AES Fellowship Award: “Psychoacoustics of Interactions between Loudspeakers, Listeners and Rooms.” Session chairman for three AES conferences Member of the AES Working Group on Listening Tests Member Technical Committee on Perception and Subjective Evaluation of Audio Signals. Recently elected Governor of the Audio Engineering Society

  11. R H istory R R M P M S esearch esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary W o r l d leader in Research Kevin Voecks Director Product Development Revel 1976-78 Symdex - CEO 1978-84 Mirage - Chief Engineer 1984-95 Snell Acoustics - Chief Engineer 1995-99 Revel “Best New Audio Company” The Academy Advancing High Performance Audio & Video Golden Note Award “Loudspeaker of 1998” Revel Ultima Gem, Stereophile “Design and Engineering Showcase Award” International CES

  12. D H istory R R M P M S esearch esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary D e s i g n Renowned industrial design team creates an original solution Cabinet design facilitates innovativestructural design Design provides a wide range of finishes and materials

  13. E H istory R R M P M S esearch esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary E n g i n e e r i n g Development of new drivers Implementation of high technology engineering equipment to test components Ability to generate working prototypes

  14. M H istory R R M P M S esearch esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary M a n u f a c t u r e Development of new manufacturing processes to achieve tighter tolerances Complete in house manufacture, assembly and quality control completes vertical integration Ability to achieve lower variance and generate higher measurable quality

  15. D E M R H istory R R M P M S esearch esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary

  16. H istory R esearch R esources P roducts M anufacture M ulti-channel S ummary a g e n d a

  17. seeking the acoustic truth R e s e a r c h L i s t e n i n g M e a s u r e d

  18. R esearch R M P M S H istory esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary P h i l o s o p h y It’s about music It’s about listening It’s about research that reveals the acoustic truth

  19. R esearch R M P M S H istory esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary W a i t... “if it sounds right, it will measure right” “if it measures right, it will sound right” Subjectivist Objectivist

  20. R esearch R M P M S H istory esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary P h i l o s o p h y “In the audio business, listening is not a frivolous activity” “In the real world, one wishes to know more than we presently know about measurements and their relation to perceptions” Dr. Floyd Toole, “Listening Tests -Turning Opinion into Fact” Journal Audio Engineering Society, Vol. 30, No. 6

  21. R esearch R M P M S H istory esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary D i r e c t i o n To achieve the target, prudent design decisions must be made. Optimum performance is achieved by identifying the correct priorities Tradeoffs are always involved in engineering, speaker engineering is not exempt

  22. R esearch R M P M S H istory esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary F o u n d a t i o n Speaker design therefore must be grounded in physiological facts... Soundqualities determine the priorities Timbre Directivity Resonance Distortion Dynamics Phase Waveform preservation Which are most important?

  23. R esearch R M P M S H istory esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary F u n d a m e n t a l s Primary influences: Sound qualities were identified and ranked most important Timbre Directivity Resonance Distortion Dynamics Phase Waveform preservation threshold of audibility least important

  24. R esearch R M P M S H istory esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary F u n d a m e n t a l s Timbre Overwhelmingly dominant Resonances Must be kept below audible threshold Dynamic compression very significant Distortion frequency dependent thresholds

  25. R esearch R M P M S H istory esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary F u n d a m e n t a l s Primary finding: Timbre is the most significant and complex audible characteristic Timbre is composed of many components making characterization difficult Influences room acoustics loudspeaker / room interaction

  26. R esearch R M P M S H istory esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary F u n d a m e n t a l s Now that we have identified the key attributes of perception, how do we characterize and measure them? Breakthrough Measurement process has high correlation to sound quality Requires a combination of many measurements, using many methods

  27. R esearch R M P M S H istory esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary Breakthrough P r o c e s s Objective / Quantitative Anechoic chamber tests Listening Room tests 72 measurements 1,000 double blind trials Subjective / Qualitative

  28. R esearch R M P M S H istory esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary F a c t “The importance of reflected sound on the perception of live and reproduced sound is unquestioned.” Sean E. Olive and Dr. Floyd Toole, “The Detection of Reflections in Typical Rooms” Journal Audio Engineering Society, Vol. 37, No. 7/8

  29. R esearch R M P M S H istory esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary M e a s u r e Timbre is comprised of 3 groups of sound a. Direct b. Earlyreflections c. Reverberant

  30. R esearch R M P M S H istory esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary M e a s u r e a. Direct sound We mimic the way we hear and how the brain processes it We do not electronically “smooth” the curve, we use more measurements!

  31. R esearch R M P M S H istory esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary M e a s u r e b. Earlyreflections Reflections are as important as direct sound Weighting for each boundary based on extensive research

  32. R esearch R M P M S H istory esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary M e a s u r e c. Reverberant Loudspeakers output in all directions contributes Includes sound heard after multiple reflections from all boundaries Intensive measurements reveal inadequacies in competitive designs

  33. R esearch R M P M S H istory esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary M e a s u r e d. Correlation Single Calculated Curve Correlates to Sound Quality Weighted average of all measurements based on measurements in many listening rooms

  34. Correlation measured vs. listening R esearch R M P M S H istory esources anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary listening 3. Psychological group interpretation personal interpretation 2. Physical room acoustics loudspeaker interaction measurement 1. Physiological auditory influences

  35. H istory R esearch R esources P roducts M anufacture M ulti-channel S ummary a g e n d a

  36. R esources R M P M S H istory esearch anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary R e s o u r c e s We have created a research methodology that is proven to be sonically relevant Now that we have identified the way forward what resources will we need to accomplish this?

  37. Measure R D E M R esources R M P M S H istory esearch anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary Prototype Testing Listening

  38. Measure R esources R M P M S H istory esearch anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary R e s o u r c e s Three State of the Art Anechoic Chambers Do not suffer from disadvantages of simulated chambers Provide high resolution results

  39. Measure R esources R M P M S H istory esearch anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary A n e c h o i c C h a m b e r 1 8 0 H z 4 p i 5,000 cubic feet full transparent floor

  40. Measure R esources R M P M S H istory esearch anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary A n e c h o i c C h a m b e r 6 0 H z 4 p i 10,000 cubic feet Calibrated to +/- 0.5 dB below 60 Hz Accurate to 20 Hz! Essential for full range speaker design

  41. Measure R esources R M P M S H istory esearch anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary A n e c h o i c C h a m b e r 2 p i 7,000 cubic ft. Critical for testing drivers without the effects of an enclosure

  42. Measure R esources R M P M S H istory esearch anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary A s s e s s m e n t Available OEM drivers offerings are not good enough for all applications Midrange & Woofers are often the limitations Original Equipment Manufacturers often specify components at +/- 3 dB Optimum transducers are not always available for each application

  43. Measure R esources R M P M S H istory esearch anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary S o l u t i o n “If you want it done well…do it yourself” -anon Complete in house transducer design, development and production Ability to specify drivers for individual application Engineer drivers to measurement and listening results

  44. R D E M R esources R M P M S H istory esearch anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary Prototype Measure Testing Listening

  45. Prototype R esources R M P M S H istory esearch anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary We can now engineer a transducer in house using the very best in engineering tools FEA (finite element analysis) design of motor systems

  46. Prototype R esources R M P M S H istory esearch anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary Fast samples for testing and analysis Machine is able to create working prototypes for testing and measurement in less than 24 hours Note: cast woofer basket

  47. Testing R D E M R esources R M P M S H istory esearch anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary Prototype Measure Listening

  48. Testing R esources R M P M S H istory esearch anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary I n f l u e n c e s Engineering analysis is used to better understand the role that individual components have in affecting sound quality. Transducer: diaphragm, surround, motor, voice coil and former Enclosure: shape, construction, materials, and damping Network: capacitor types, inductor types, element interaction

  49. Testing R esources R M P M S H istory esearch anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary Mark Glazer, using a laser scanner that reveals acceleration of materials Perfect for drivers, materials and cabinet design

  50. Testing R esources R M P M S H istory esearch anufacture roducts ulti-channel ummary Laser interferometry gave us the opportunity to exact more precise measurements in developing superior transducers.