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Chapter 13

Chapter 13. The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes. Organization:. President. VP (dean). division heads. department chair. faculty. brain. more processing centers. processing centers. senses. muscles. fig. 13-1. Chapter 12 neurons Chapter 13 spinal cord reflexes

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Chapter 13

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  1. Chapter 13 The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes

  2. Organization: President VP (dean) division heads department chair faculty

  3. brain more processing centers processing centers senses muscles

  4. fig. 13-1

  5. Chapter 12 neurons Chapter 13 spinal cord reflexes Chapter 14 brain and cranial nerves Chapter 15 brain-spinal cord interaction Chapter 16 autonomic NS

  6. Spinal cord anatomy ~ 18 inches (not as long as vertebral column) ends about L1 or L2 (conus medullaris) deep groove on anterior (ventral) side roots attached to it (dorsal and ventral)

  7. cervical thoracic lumbar fig. 13-2

  8. fig. 13-3

  9. fig. 13-5

  10. white matter posterior white columns lateral white columns anterior white columns fig. 13-5

  11. ascending tracts sensory descending tracts (motor) posterior white columns lateral white columns anterior white columns fig. 13-5

  12. epineurium perineurium endoneurium fig. 13-6

  13. Charlie epaxial hypaxial e axis h

  14. fig. 7-22c

  15. fig. 11-3

  16. fig 13-7

  17. distribution of spinal nerves dorsal and ventral dermatomes

  18. fig 13-8

  19. Clinically significant: damage to spinal nerve or DRG may cause sensory loss to just a restricted part of the skin… …by mapping the deficit you may be able to pinpoint where the nerve has been damaged

  20. Clinically significant: example: shingles virus attacks DRG painful rash area of dermatome of that spinal nerve

  21. spinal cord Distribution of spinal nerves T1 to T12 is “typical”

  22. fig. 13-9

  23. cervical plexus C 3 , 4 and 5 keep the diaphragm alive fig. 13-10

  24. brachial plexus

  25. lumbar plexus sacral plexus S 2 , 3 and 4 keep your anus off the floor

  26. The human body contains: 10,000,000 sensory neurons 500,000 motor neurons 20,000,000,000 interneurons information to CNS control effectors (muscles) interpret, plan, coordinate incoming and outgoing info

  27. all these neurons are organized into neuronal pools - functional groups of interconnected neurons 100’s to 1000’s ??

  28. neuronal polls 100’s to 1000’s ?? each has limited input/output can be excitatory or inhibitory contain different circuit patterns

  29. one neuron (neuronal pool) Divergence multiple neurons (neuronal pools) fig. 13-13a (vision)

  30. many neurons Convergence single neuron fig. 13-13b (muscle control, breathing)

  31. Serial Processing stepwise spread of info (pain) fig. 13-13c

  32. Parallel Processing several neurons (pools) access same info divergence serial fig. 13-13d (ouch)

  33. Reverberation positive feedback loop fig. 13-13e

  34. conditions in or around the body can change suddenly and unexpectedly… reflex rapid, automatic response to specific stimulus make adjustments to maintain homeostasis

  35. remember chapter 1…

  36. Homeostatic regulation: autoregulation extrinsic regulation adjustment within organ… nervous/endocrine system

  37. Homeostatic regulation: • Three part mechanism: • receptor (stimulus) • control center • effector

  38. wiring of a reflex is called… reflex arc

  39. reflex arc step 1 arrival of stimulus activation of receptor

  40. reflex arc step 2 activation of sensory neuron

  41. reflex arc step 3 information processing

  42. reflex arc step 4 activation of motorneuron

  43. reflex arc step 5 response of effector

  44. fig. 13-14

  45. Classification of reflexes developmental origin nature of motor response complexity site of information processing

  46. Classification of reflexes developmental origin innate acquired nursing driving

  47. Classification of reflexes nature of motor response somatic visceral skeletal muscle later (#16)

  48. Classification of reflexes complexity monosynaptic polysynaptic quicker slower

  49. Classification of reflexes site of processing site spinal cord brain spinal reflexes cranial reflexes (later)

  50. Monosynaptic reflexes very little delay rapid responses example: stretch reflex automatic regulation of length of skeletal muscle

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