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Behavioral Interviewing: Selecting the right person for the right job

Behavioral Interviewing: Selecting the right person for the right job

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Behavioral Interviewing: Selecting the right person for the right job

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    1. Behavioral Interviewing: Selecting the right person for the right job! HR Modernization Project July 2010 The state of California strives to build a high performance culture that aligns individual performance to the organizations strategic plan. This makes hiring decisions criticaldepartments and agencies must hire the right person with the right skills for the right job. Hiring decisions impact the organization for yearspositively or negatively. Managers need a systematic, objective approach when making their hiring decisions. Many organizations, public and private, have begun using behavior-based interviewing, a structured approach that focuses on looking at past performance to predict success in future performance. The goal of this presentation is to provide basic information on how to effectively plan and conduct behavioral interviews. Using these ideas will increase your chances of making a good job/person match. The state of California strives to build a high performance culture that aligns individual performance to the organizations strategic plan. This makes hiring decisions criticaldepartments and agencies must hire the right person with the right skills for the right job. Hiring decisions impact the organization for yearspositively or negatively. Managers need a systematic, objective approach when making their hiring decisions. Many organizations, public and private, have begun using behavior-based interviewing, a structured approach that focuses on looking at past performance to predict success in future performance. The goal of this presentation is to provide basic information on how to effectively plan and conduct behavioral interviews. Using these ideas will increase your chances of making a good job/person match.

    2. By the end of this session, the successful learner will be able to: Define behavioral interviewing Explain the benefits of behavioral interviewing for organizations and candidates Identify the steps in preparing and conducting behavioral interviews and behavioral reference checks Identify and write behavioral interview questions Develop tools to evaluate candidates Learning Objectives First, lets review the objectives of this training. By the end of this module, the successful learner will be able to: define a behavioral interview and how it differs from traditional interviews identify the benefits of behavioral interviewing for organizations and for candidates identify specific steps in preparing and conducting behavioral interviews and a behavioral reference checks identify and write behavioral questions objectively evaluate candidates to support your final candidate selection First, lets review the objectives of this training. By the end of this module, the successful learner will be able to: define a behavioral interview and how it differs from traditional interviews identify the benefits of behavioral interviewing for organizations and for candidates identify specific steps in preparing and conducting behavioral interviews and a behavioral reference checks identify and write behavioral questions objectively evaluate candidates to support your final candidate selection

    3. Interviews in which questions are designed for the candidate to give specific information on how he/she has handled or reacted to situations in the past that are likely to come up in the job for which you are recruiting. Based on the premise that past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior What is a behavioral interview? So, what is behavioral interviewing? Interviews in which questions are designed for the candidate to give specific information on how he/she has handled or reacted to situations in the past that are likely to come up in the job for which you are recruiting. Behavioral interviewing is based on the premise that the best way to predict future performance is to examine past performance in a similar situation. So, what is behavioral interviewing? Interviews in which questions are designed for the candidate to give specific information on how he/she has handled or reacted to situations in the past that are likely to come up in the job for which you are recruiting. Behavioral interviewing is based on the premise that the best way to predict future performance is to examine past performance in a similar situation.

    4. Are objective Relate specifically to knowledge, skills, abilities, or work qualities needed to be effective in the position being filled Require the interviewee to provide examples of their experience and background in a specific area Behavioral Interviewing Questions The questions asked by interviewers must be objective and relate specifically to the behaviors necessary to be effective in the position being filled. They require the interviewee to provide in-depth examples of their experience in a job-related area. Work qualities encompass the traits, motives, values, etc. that motivate employees on their jobs (e.g., dependability, honesty). So instead of asking a candidate how he or she would behave, the interviewer asks how the candidate did behave. The interviewer wants to know how the candidate handled a specific situation or demonstrated a specific knowledge or skill rather than what they might do in a hypothetical situation. The questions asked by interviewers must be objective and relate specifically to the behaviors necessary to be effective in the position being filled. They require the interviewee to provide in-depth examples of their experience in a job-related area. Work qualities encompass the traits, motives, values, etc. that motivate employees on their jobs (e.g., dependability, honesty). So instead of asking a candidate how he or she would behave, the interviewer asks how the candidate did behave. The interviewer wants to know how the candidate handled a specific situation or demonstrated a specific knowledge or skill rather than what they might do in a hypothetical situation.

    5. Describe a situation where you had to defend or explain an idea or proposal. Who was the audience, what were the issues, and what was the outcome? Describe a situation where you had to complete work with little or no direction from supervisors or colleagues? Sample Behavioral Interview Questions Here are some sample behavioral interview questions. If oral communication is an important part of the job, the interviewer might ask: Describe a situation where you had to defend or explain an idea or proposal. Who was the audience, what was the issue and what was the outcome? Here the interviewee is being asked to provide a concrete example of a time when he or she clearly and persuasively presented an idea. If motivation and self-direction are important for successful performance in the position, the interviewer could ask: Describe a situation where you had to complete work with little or no direction from superiors or colleagues. Here, the interviewee is being asked to prove his or her personal motivation with an actual story, rather than just saying, Im highly motivated. Here are some sample behavioral interview questions. If oral communication is an important part of the job, the interviewer might ask: Describe a situation where you had to defend or explain an idea or proposal. Who was the audience, what was the issue and what was the outcome? Here the interviewee is being asked to provide a concrete example of a time when he or she clearly and persuasively presented an idea. If motivation and self-direction are important for successful performance in the position, the interviewer could ask: Describe a situation where you had to complete work with little or no direction from superiors or colleagues. Here, the interviewee is being asked to prove his or her personal motivation with an actual story, rather than just saying, Im highly motivated.

    6. For employers Hire the best person for the job More productive more quickly Less initial training and development Greater chance of retention Individual performance is linked to organizational performance For candidates Better application of ones skills to job Matching people to jobs leads to increased satisfaction, self-esteem, self confidence Can immediately see their direct contribution to organizational goals Sees organization as a place to build a career Benefits of Behavioral Interviewing Behavioral interviewing, when done correctly, creates a win-win for the organization and the person being hired. For employers, the benefits are: -You hire the best person for the job the top performer. This leads to greater productivity faster. -It can lead to a shorter on-boarding process as the person comes with most of the skills needed to perform. This means less initial training and other staff development activities are needed. The candidate hits the ground running -And when people feel productive, there is a greater chance they will stay, reducing the high cost of turnover.often estimated at one and a half to three times the annual salary of the position being filled. -And perhaps most important, if the job is clearly linked to organizational priorities, by hiring based on past performance, there is a direct impact on organizational performance. But it is not a one-way street. The candidates also benefits. -With a good job-person match, a persons skills are used immediately. -This leads to a faster start on the jobwhich generally results in increased self esteem, self confidence, excitement, and motivation. -New employees will immediately begin to see they are contributing to the success of their organization. -When employees feel valued and their skills are being used, there is a greater chance they will see the position as more than just a job; they will see it as a place where they want to build a career. Behavioral interviewing, when done correctly, creates a win-win for the organization and the person being hired. For employers, the benefits are: -You hire the best person for the job the top performer. This leads to greater productivity faster. -It can lead to a shorter on-boarding process as the person comes with most of the skills needed to perform. This means less initial training and other staff development activities are needed. The candidate hits the ground running -And when people feel productive, there is a greater chance they will stay, reducing the high cost of turnover.often estimated at one and a half to three times the annual salary of the position being filled. -And perhaps most important, if the job is clearly linked to organizational priorities, by hiring based on past performance, there is a direct impact on organizational performance. But it is not a one-way street. The candidates also benefits. -With a good job-person match, a persons skills are used immediately. -This leads to a faster start on the jobwhich generally results in increased self esteem, self confidence, excitement, and motivation. -New employees will immediately begin to see they are contributing to the success of their organization. -When employees feel valued and their skills are being used, there is a greater chance they will see the position as more than just a job; they will see it as a place where they want to build a career.

    7. Think strategically Identify the knowledge, skills, abilities, and on-the-job behaviors (KSABs) and training needed for successful performance Review and, if needed, update the job description Make a list of behavioral questions Develop a rating scale to evaluate candidates Preparing for a Behavioral Interview Effective interviews do not happen by accident. It is the upfront work that makes the behavioral interview successful. In hiring the right person, think of the adage If you fail to plan, you plan to fail. In the case of interviewing, this could mean a poor job/person match that is extremely costly and frustrating to both the organization and candidate. There are five key steps to look at when preparing for a behavioral interview. They are: Think strategically Identify the knowledge, skills, abilities, on-the-job behaviors (KSABs), and training needed for successful performance Review and, if needed, update the job description Make a list of behavioral questions Develop a rating scale to evaluate candidates Lets look at each of these steps. Effective interviews do not happen by accident. It is the upfront work that makes the behavioral interview successful. In hiring the right person, think of the adage If you fail to plan, you plan to fail. In the case of interviewing, this could mean a poor job/person match that is extremely costly and frustrating to both the organization and candidate. There are five key steps to look at when preparing for a behavioral interview. They are: Think strategically Identify the knowledge, skills, abilities, on-the-job behaviors (KSABs), and training needed for successful performance Review and, if needed, update the job description Make a list of behavioral questions Develop a rating scale to evaluate candidates Lets look at each of these steps.

    8. See your HR Office as your strategic partner What are your organizations workforce and strategic plans? How does your division, unit, etc. contribute to organizational goals and objectives? How does the specific job you will be recruiting and interviewing for contribute to organizational goals and objectives? 1. Think Strategically Before you ever announce a job or set up interviews, think strategically. What does this mean? First, work closely with your management and HR Office to find out about your departments workforce plans, mission critical positions, anticipated layoffs, and anything else that may impact filling your vacancy. Also look at the strategic plan. Ask how your division, unit, etc., contributes to organizational goals and objectives. Work closely with HR to ensure you are focusing on hiring people who will contribute to these goals and objectives. Now you are ready to determine if the knowledge, skills, abilities, and on-the-job behaviors of your job align with the organizational goals and objectives. For example, if customer service is a key organizational priority, are you looking for those knowledge, skills, abilities, and on-the-job behaviors in the people you interview? Before you ever announce a job or set up interviews, think strategically. What does this mean? First, work closely with your management and HR Office to find out about your departments workforce plans, mission critical positions, anticipated layoffs, and anything else that may impact filling your vacancy. Also look at the strategic plan. Ask how your division, unit, etc., contributes to organizational goals and objectives. Work closely with HR to ensure you are focusing on hiring people who will contribute to these goals and objectives. Now you are ready to determine if the knowledge, skills, abilities, and on-the-job behaviors of your job align with the organizational goals and objectives. For example, if customer service is a key organizational priority, are you looking for those knowledge, skills, abilities, and on-the-job behaviors in the people you interview?

    9. Must be detailed as to what you are looking for in YOUR positionnow and in the future Consider personal/interpersonal as well as technical skills Dont forget the organizational environment Goal: Good job-person match 2. Identify the KSABs needed for successful performance Spend upfront time to determine the duties and tasks that truly need to be performed in your job. You may be hiring an Analyst. But what does an Analyst do in YOUR division and / or department? In one department, an analyst may handle grants so the position requires fiscal skills. In another department, an analyst may be involved in training and presentation and customer service skills are required. Make sure you focus on what is important in your specific job that will get you a good skills match. Also consider what will be needed 2-3 years in the future. When doing this, many managers focus primarily on the technical skills. However, in most jobs personal and interpersonal behaviors, such as paying attention to detail, being self-motivated, or getting along with others, can be the critical job skills These interpersonal skills often go hand in hand with your organizational environment. For example, at the Franchise Tax Board or Board of Equalization, interpreting financial data and attention to detail are critical as both departments deal with taxes. But at the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA), speed and flexibility are the keys to success. Employees at CalEMA need to respond fast and in a flexible manner when there is a fire or other emergency. So look for candidates who match your organizational environment. The goal -- a good job/person match. Spend upfront time to determine the duties and tasks that truly need to be performed in your job. You may be hiring an Analyst. But what does an Analyst do in YOUR division and / or department? In one department, an analyst may handle grants so the position requires fiscal skills. In another department, an analyst may be involved in training and presentation and customer service skills are required. Make sure you focus on what is important in your specific job that will get you a good skills match. Also consider what will be needed 2-3 years in the future. When doing this, many managers focus primarily on the technical skills. However, in most jobs personal and interpersonal behaviors, such as paying attention to detail, being self-motivated, or getting along with others, can be the critical job skills These interpersonal skills often go hand in hand with your organizational environment. For example, at the Franchise Tax Board or Board of Equalization, interpreting financial data and attention to detail are critical as both departments deal with taxes. But at the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA), speed and flexibility are the keys to success. Employees at CalEMA need to respond fast and in a flexible manner when there is a fire or other emergency. So look for candidates who match your organizational environment. The goal -- a good job/person match.

    10. Make sure it reflects the KSABs needed for successful job performance Clear, up-to-date job descriptions helps candidates decide if they want to apply for the job and tells them exactly what you expect of the person you will select. 3. Review and, if needed, update the current job description Once you have identified the important knowledge, skills, abilities, and on-the-job behaviors of the position you will be recruiting for, work with your HR Office to make sure your job description is up-to date. If not, update it before writing the job announcement or you will not get the candidates you want. By making sure the critical knowledge, skills, abilities, and on-the-job behaviors are identified, potential candidates know this is a job they want to apply for and tell them exactly what you are looking for in the person you will select. Once you have identified the important knowledge, skills, abilities, and on-the-job behaviors of the position you will be recruiting for, work with your HR Office to make sure your job description is up-to date. If not, update it before writing the job announcement or you will not get the candidates you want. By making sure the critical knowledge, skills, abilities, and on-the-job behaviors are identified, potential candidates know this is a job they want to apply for and tell them exactly what you are looking for in the person you will select.

    11. Zero in on the KSABs that are needed to perform successfully in the job Focus on what the person has done in the past, NOT what they think they might do in the future. Always remember what is important to the job and the organization. 4. Develop a list of behavioral questions that focus on the essential elements of your job Once you have identified the knowledge, skills, abilities, and on-the-job behaviors of the job and made sure the job description is current, develop a list of behavioral questions that you will ask each candidate during the interview. Developing the right questions takes time and thought. As mentioned earlier, in a behavioral interview, the interviewer asks candidates to recall specific instances where they were faced with a set of circumstances, and how they reacted. Instead of asking how they would behave, they ask how they did behave. A structured list of questions keeps you focused on what is important in your job, helps you avoid the trap of misleading first impressions or just going with your gut, and helps you make comparisons between the various answers and approaches of your interviewees. This also makes your hire more defensible. Stay focused on what is important to the job and the organization. Once you have identified the knowledge, skills, abilities, and on-the-job behaviors of the job and made sure the job description is current, develop a list of behavioral questions that you will ask each candidate during the interview. Developing the right questions takes time and thought. As mentioned earlier, in a behavioral interview, the interviewer asks candidates to recall specific instances where they were faced with a set of circumstances, and how they reacted. Instead of asking how they would behave, they ask how they did behave. A structured list of questions keeps you focused on what is important in your job, helps you avoid the trap of misleading first impressions or just going with your gut, and helps you make comparisons between the various answers and approaches of your interviewees. This also makes your hire more defensible. Stay focused on what is important to the job and the organization.

    12. If you are looking for accountability: Tell me about a time that you had too much work to complete by the deadline. Give me an example of a time when you were unable to meet your goals. What did you do? If you are looking for the ability to resolve conflict: Describe how you successfully handled a situation with a particularly difficult customer or coworker. Examples Here are some examples of behavioral questions. If you are looking for the personal characteristic of Accountability, an interviewer might ask a candidate: Tell me about a time that you had too much work to complete and too little time to meet your deadline. Here, the interviewer may be trying to gain insight into several issues. For example: Does the candidate take responsibility for the work assigned? Can the candidate delegate the work? How does the candidate structure their time to get the necessary tasks completed? Does the candidate make excuses for not achieving the objective or do they achieve the objective even under difficult conditions? To gain additional information, the interviewer might ask, Give me an example of a time when you were unable to meet your goals. What did you do? How persevering is the candidate? Does the candidate give up easily, or recognize their responsibility and make a commitment to a new positive outcome? If you are looking for the ability to resolve conflict, you might ask, Describe how you successfully handled a situation with particularly difficult customer or coworker. In this situation, the interviewer will be looking for skills in defusing situations, listening, or not placing blame on others. Here are some examples of behavioral questions. If you are looking for the personal characteristic of Accountability, an interviewer might ask a candidate: Tell me about a time that you had too much work to complete and too little time to meet your deadline. Here, the interviewer may be trying to gain insight into several issues. For example: Does the candidate take responsibility for the work assigned? Can the candidate delegate the work? How does the candidate structure their time to get the necessary tasks completed? Does the candidate make excuses for not achieving the objective or do they achieve the objective even under difficult conditions?

    13. If you are looking for the ability to analyze: Tell me about a recent work problem you encountered. How did you analyze the situation and come to a decision? Can you provide an example of when you had to make an important decision about your work when little data was available. Other examples If you are looking for the ability to analyze, an interviewer might ask a candidate: Tell me about a recent work problem you encountered. How did you analyze the situation to come to a decision? Here the interviewer wants to learn about a candidates approach to decision-making and his or her thinking skills. Or to probe further, you might ask: Can you provide an example of when you had to make an important decision about your work when little data was available. Here the interviewer seeks a specific example of how the candidate researches an issue and how they find critical information to support their decision-making. By focusing the interview on the success criteria that are related with good job performance, you will stay focused on what is important and therefore make better hiring decisions. If you are looking for the ability to analyze, an interviewer might ask a candidate: Tell me about a recent work problem you encountered. How did you analyze the situation to come to a decision? Here the interviewer wants to learn about a candidates approach to decision-making and his or her thinking skills. Or to probe further, you might ask: Can you provide an example of when you had to make an important decision about your work when little data was available. Here the interviewer seeks a specific example of how the candidate researches an issue and how they find critical information to support their decision-making. By focusing the interview on the success criteria that are related with good job performance, you will stay focused on what is important and therefore make better hiring decisions.

    14. Describe a time. Tell us more about. What is an example of when When have you What were What (how, where, why, when) did you. Behavioral questions are open-ended questions that may begin with such phrases as: Behavioral questions are generally open-ended questions that encourage candidates to talk about their background and experience. Typical lead-ins to behavioral questions are: Describe a time when you. Tell us about What is an example of when.. When have you What were. What (or how, were, why, when) did you. Behavioral questions are generally open-ended questions that encourage candidates to talk about their background and experience. Typical lead-ins to behavioral questions are: Describe a time when you. Tell us about What is an example of when.. When have you What were. What (or how, were, why, when) did you.

    15. Describe a time when a project you worked on received organizational recognition. Tell us about a time when you made a mistake, what were the consequence, and what you learned from the incident. Seek both positive and negative examples of behavior Ask behavioral questions that seek both positive and negative examples of behavior such as: Describe a time when a project that you worked on received organizational recognition. Tell us about a time when you made a mistake, what were the consequences, and what you learned from the incident. This will give you insight into whether a candidate will take responsibility for a mistake, own the consequences, and fix the situation. By asking for both positive and negative examples, you get more information and a more balanced and accurate picture of the candidate. You also avoid biasing your interview toward either the positive or negative side. Ask behavioral questions that seek both positive and negative examples of behavior such as: Describe a time when a project that you worked on received organizational recognition. Tell us about a time when you made a mistake, what were the consequences, and what you learned from the incident. This will give you insight into whether a candidate will take responsibility for a mistake, own the consequences, and fix the situation. By asking for both positive and negative examples, you get more information and a more balanced and accurate picture of the candidate. You also avoid biasing your interview toward either the positive or negative side.

    16. General non-behavioral questions What are your strengths? weaknesses? Why should we hire you? Theoretical or situation questions How would you handle an irate customer? Leading questions We need people who are team players. Are you a team player? Question Pitfalls Many of us were taught to interview by using general, leading, or theoretical/ situational questions. Lets take a look at these pitfall questions and see if they sound familiar. 1. General non-behavioral questions are those requiring general knowledge or personal awareness. These can have very little to do with the specific duties of a position. Questions requesting a description of strengths, weaknesses and personality characteristics, while at times valuable, rarely relate specifically to knowledge, skills, abilities, and on-the-job behaviors necessary for a specific position. General questions also encourage memorized answers and the interviewee is rarely asked to back up what was said. For instance, in discussing his or her greatest strength, a candidate might say, Im motivated, hard working and I get along well with everyone. In this general format, the interviewer must project whether the candidate is a good fit. There are many books on the market telling people just how to answer such questions. 2. A second pitfall is to ask questions that puts the applicant in a hypothetical situation. For example, What would do if you had conflicting priorities? These questions are more likely to test skill at answering questions rather than performing well in the job. It is easy for applicants to say what they would do; it is more important to find out what the person has done. Typical examples are: How would you handle an irate customer? If given assignments by two different people, how would you set priorities? How would you handle an employee who is always coming in late? Instead you might ask: Describe a time when you handled an irate customer. What did you do? What was the outcome? Describe a time when you were given assignments by two different people who both wanted their work done first. How did you go about setting your priorities? As a supervisor, tell me about a time when you had an employee who regularly came in late or left early? How did you resolve the situation? 3. A third pitfall is asking leading questions such as Working on your own does not bother you, does it? Of course the response will be something like Oh, certainly I can work alone or on a team. The interviewer hints at the answer by the way the question is phrased. Instead, if working alone is important, ask about a time a person had to work independently with little supervision or guidance.Many of us were taught to interview by using general, leading, or theoretical/ situational questions. Lets take a look at these pitfall questions and see if they sound familiar. 1. General non-behavioral questions are those requiring general knowledge or personal awareness. These can have very little to do with the specific duties of a position. Questions requesting a description of strengths, weaknesses and personality characteristics, while at times valuable, rarely relate specifically to knowledge, skills, abilities, and on-the-job behaviors necessary for a specific position. General questions also encourage memorized answers and the interviewee is rarely asked to back up what was said. For instance, in discussing his or her greatest strength, a candidate might say, Im motivated, hard working and I get along well with everyone. In this general format, the interviewer must project whether the candidate is a good fit. There are many books on the market telling people just how to answer such questions. 2. A second pitfall is to ask questions that puts the applicant in a hypothetical situation. For example, What would do if you had conflicting priorities? These questions are more likely to test skill at answering questions rather than performing well in the job. It is easy for applicants to say what they would do; it is more important to find out what the person has done. Typical examples are: How would you handle an irate customer? If given assignments by two different people, how would you set priorities? How would you handle an employee who is always coming in late? Instead you might ask: Describe a time when you handled an irate customer. What did you do? What was the outcome? Describe a time when you were given assignments by two different people who both wanted their work done first. How did you go about setting your priorities? As a supervisor, tell me about a time when you had an employee who regularly came in late or left early? How did you resolve the situation? 3. A third pitfall is asking leading questions such as Working on your own does not bother you, does it? Of course the response will be something like Oh, certainly I can work alone or on a team. The interviewer hints at the answer by the way the question is phrased. Instead, if working alone is important, ask about a time a person had to work independently with little supervision or guidance.

    17. Questions that could be considered illegal Irrelevant questions If you were a tree, what kind of tree would you be? Other pitfalls Two other types of questions to avoid are questions that could be considered illegal or questions that are irrelevant. We all know that discrimination is not something we intend, but its not the intent of the speaker that matters; its how the question is perceived by the listener. For example, an interviewer asking, How would you bring fresh energy to the job could be interpreted as age discrimination. So be sensitive to how you come across and avoid questions that might delve into a persons age, race, gender, religion, physical or mental disability, marital status, place of origin, ancestry, race, color, criminal record, sexual orientation, and military service. Make sure all your questions are job related and focus on your specific selection criteria. Irrelevant questions are are usually off-the-wall questions that interviewers think provide vital information that correlate with job success. If you were a tree, what kind of tree would you be? What is a metaphor for your current organization? Two other types of questions to avoid are questions that could be considered illegal or questions that are irrelevant. We all know that discrimination is not something we intend, but its not the intent of the speaker that matters; its how the question is perceived by the listener. For example, an interviewer asking, How would you bring fresh energy to the job could be interpreted as age discrimination. So be sensitive to how you come across and avoid questions that might delve into a persons age, race, gender, religion, physical or mental disability, marital status, place of origin, ancestry, race, color, criminal record, sexual orientation, and military service. Make sure all your questions are job related and focus on your specific selection criteria. Irrelevant questions are are usually off-the-wall questions that interviewers think provide vital information that correlate with job success. If you were a tree, what kind of tree would you be? What is a metaphor for your current organization?

    18. Supervisors Virtual Help Desk Search the internet List of books, articles, videos HR Mod Resource Tool Page Resources for Behavioral Questions

    19. What is your ideal job? In this position, you would be part of a virtual team. How would you develop relationships with your colleagues in such a setting? Tell us about a time when you had multiple priorities and how you prioritized them. What is your experience in writing research papers? Describe a situation when a leader should not involve staff in a decision. What are your three most important work values? Why? (See Note Page for Answers) Quiz: Which of the following are behavioral questions? So, heres a quick learning assessment. Which of the following are behavioral questions? (Script instructions) (Note: Captivate has a quiz feature that will tell the person if their answer is correct or incorrect and can also offer an explanation as to why it is incorrect.) 1. No. This is a general question. 2. No. This is a hypothetical question. 3. Correct. This question focuses on past performance. 4. Correct. This question focuses on actual experience. 5. No. This is a hypothetical question. 6. No. This is a general question but could be useful in some situations if the candidate is asked to elaborate on why they are important. So, heres a quick learning assessment. Which of the following are behavioral questions? (Script instructions) (Note: Captivate has a quiz feature that will tell the person if their answer is correct or incorrect and can also offer an explanation as to why it is incorrect.) 1. No. This is a general question. 2. No. This is a hypothetical question. 3. Correct. This question focuses on past performance. 4. Correct. This question focuses on actual experience. 5. No. This is a hypothetical question. 6. No. This is a general question but could be useful in some situations if the candidate is asked to elaborate on why they are important.

    20. For each of the following, write a behavioral question: Ability to write Ability to communicate Integrity (See Note Page for Sample Answers) Exercise: Your turn! Now its your turn. Write a behavioral question for each of these competencies. (Script instructions) Note: Captivate also has capacity for short answers. Even if the words are not exact, it can show sample answers. Sample answers: 1. Can you tell me about your experience in writing technical reports? What type of reports were they? What impact did they have? 2. Please share an example of when you had to make a presentation to an unfriendly audience. What was the situation? How did you approach it? What was the result? 3. What is an example of a time when you were faced with an ethical dilemma? What was the issue? How did you resolve it? What was the outcome? Now its your turn. Write a behavioral question for each of these competencies. (Script instructions) Note: Captivate also has capacity for short answers. Even if the words are not exact, it can show sample answers. Sample answers: 1. Can you tell me about your experience in writing technical reports? What type of reports were they? What impact did they have? 2. Please share an example of when you had to make a presentation to an unfriendly audience. What was the situation? How did you approach it? What was the result? 3. What is an example of a time when you were faced with an ethical dilemma? What was the issue? How did you resolve it? What was the outcome?

    21. Rating a comparison of a candidates education, experience, awards, and performance against a set of job-related evaluation criteria to assess his/her ability to successfully perform in the position being filled Set in advance Check with your HR Office for any departmental policies or guidance on rating job applicants 5. Develop a rating scale to evaluate candidates The fifth step in preparing for a Behavioral Interview is to develop a rating scale to evaluate candidates on a competitive basis. But first, just what does it mean to rate on a competitive basis? It is a comparison of a candidates education, experience, awards, and past performance against a set of job-related evaluation criteria to assess his or her ability to successfully perform in the position being filled. It also allows you to compare candidates to each other. Developing effective rating scales is one of the more challenging steps in the interviewing process as it forces the interviewer to truly think through what is important in a specific job. It is critical that you do this in advance as it helps you remain objective during the interview. Before you begin this step, check with your HR Office to see if they already have a policy or guidance on how to rate job candidates. Always keep in mind HR is your strategic partner. The fifth step in preparing for a Behavioral Interview is to develop a rating scale to evaluate candidates on a competitive basis. But first, just what does it mean to rate on a competitive basis? It is a comparison of a candidates education, experience, awards, and past performance against a set of job-related evaluation criteria to assess his or her ability to successfully perform in the position being filled. It also allows you to compare candidates to each other. Developing effective rating scales is one of the more challenging steps in the interviewing process as it forces the interviewer to truly think through what is important in a specific job. It is critical that you do this in advance as it helps you remain objective during the interview. Before you begin this step, check with your HR Office to see if they already have a policy or guidance on how to rate job candidates. Always keep in mind HR is your strategic partner.

    22. Make sure it focuses on what is critical to YOUR job Keep it simple Some people give a weight to critical job elements or use numerical scores Leave room for notes document your selection A rating scale is effective if interviewers are consistent in how they rate candidates. Rating System Guidelines Having a rating scale tells everyone in the rating process exactly what to look for. If you are developing your own rating scale, here are some simple guidelines to consider. Make sure the scale focuses on what you have determined to be the critical knowledge, skills, abilities and on-the-job behaviors of your job. If you are hiring a scientist, one candidate may have excellent scientific credentials and experience, but may not communicate well and has poor interpersonal skills. If the job requires providing testimony to the legislature on issues such as swine flu, make sure your rating scale identifies and puts a weight on having presence and communication skills. Keep it as simple as you can. Some interviewers just rank each person above or below previous applicants with notes as to why. They end up with the candidates in priority order of how they came across in the interview. Some people give a weight to critical job criteria or use a numerical rating scale. Do not make it too complex. Leave room for notes. This will become the documentation for your selection. You will know if your rating scale is effective if interviewers are consistent in how they rate candidates on each job element. Having a rating scale tells everyone in the rating process exactly what to look for. If you are developing your own rating scale, here are some simple guidelines to consider. Make sure the scale focuses on what you have determined to be the critical knowledge, skills, abilities and on-the-job behaviors of your job. If you are hiring a scientist, one candidate may have excellent scientific credentials and experience, but may not communicate well and has poor interpersonal skills. If the job requires providing testimony to the legislature on issues such as swine flu, make sure your rating scale identifies and puts a weight on having presence and communication skills. Keep it as simple as you can. Some interviewers just rank each person above or below previous applicants with notes as to why. They end up with the candidates in priority order of how they came across in the interview. Some people give a weight to critical job criteria or use a numerical rating scale. Do not make it too complex. Leave room for notes. This will become the documentation for your selection. You will know if your rating scale is effective if interviewers are consistent in how they rate candidates on each job element.

    23. Sample #1: Rating Scale Here are some sample rating scales. In this example, you simply list the important knowledge, skills, abilities and on-the-job behaviors and the questions you will ask related to these areas, leaving room for notes. You might rate as having good experience or background, some experience or background, or little or no experience or background. Or you might use acceptable, acceptable with reservations, and not acceptable. Here are some sample rating scales. In this example, you simply list the important knowledge, skills, abilities and on-the-job behaviors and the questions you will ask related to these areas, leaving room for notes. You might rate as having good experience or background, some experience or background, or little or no experience or background. Or you might use acceptable, acceptable with reservations, and not acceptable.

    24. Sample #2: Rating Scale Other scales get more complex and use numerical ratings. Other scales get more complex and use numerical ratings.

    25. Sample #3: Rating Scale And here is a slight variation on the other two examples. The key is to develop a rating scale that will help you make the best selection in a format that will serve as documentation for your decision. And here is a slight variation on the other two examples. The key is to develop a rating scale that will help you make the best selection in a format that will serve as documentation for your decision.

    26. Parts of the interview Now lets look at actually conducting the interview. The length of the interview depends upon the complexity of the job. Regardless of the length, to get the best results, make sure the interview is structured so both the interviewers and interviewees stay on track. There are generally three parts to an interview: the opening, the body, the closing. In the opening, you set the tone to make the person comfortable and explain how the interview will be conducted. The body is the heart of the interview where you ask the initial and follow up questions to determine if the candidate has the knowledge, skills, abilities, and on-the-job behaviors for the job. In the closing, you take the candidates questions and let the person know what comes next. Lets take a closer look at some of the basics for each of these parts of an interview. Now lets look at actually conducting the interview. The length of the interview depends upon the complexity of the job. Regardless of the length, to get the best results, make sure the interview is structured so both the interviewers and interviewees stay on track. There are generally three parts to an interview: the opening, the body, the closing. In the opening, you set the tone to make the person comfortable and explain how the interview will be conducted. The body is the heart of the interview where you ask the initial and follow up questions to determine if the candidate has the knowledge, skills, abilities, and on-the-job behaviors for the job. In the closing, you take the candidates questions and let the person know what comes next. Lets take a closer look at some of the basics for each of these parts of an interview.

    27. Create a positive tone; make the person feel comfortable Introduce the interviewers State the objectives of the interview Establish the timeframe so the candidate can judge how in depth to go when responding to questions Opening the interview The opening is important as it sets the tone for the interview. The goal is to make interviewees feel comfortable so they are relaxed and can focus on the interview questions. If you are interviewing for an office job, have a quiet room free of interruptions. If you are interviewing for a warehouse position, conduct the interview in the warehouse. Introduce any other interviewer(s), explain their role, and explain that everyone will be asking questions. It is a good idea to have at least two interviewers so there are different points of view. And make sure the same interviewers interview all applicants so there is consistency in ratings. State the purpose of the interview to ask questions about the candidates background and qualifications to see if there is a good fit with the position. Equally important to say is that the candidate should feel free to ask questions about the position and organization to determine if it will meet their expectations. Remember this is a two way street the candidate is interviewing you as well! Let the candidate know the steps you will be following and the estimated timeframes so they can judge how much time to spend on questions. You might say that you will start with an overview of the job, ask questions about their background and experience, and close with answering their questions and explaining when they will hear your decision. The opening is important as it sets the tone for the interview. The goal is to make interviewees feel comfortable so they are relaxed and can focus on the interview questions. If you are interviewing for an office job, have a quiet room free of interruptions. If you are interviewing for a warehouse position, conduct the interview in the warehouse. Introduce any other interviewer(s), explain their role, and explain that everyone will be asking questions. It is a good idea to have at least two interviewers so there are different points of view. And make sure the same interviewers interview all applicants so there is consistency in ratings. State the purpose of the interview to ask questions about the candidates background and qualifications to see if there is a good fit with the position. Equally important to say is that the candidate should feel free to ask questions about the position and organization to determine if it will meet their expectations. Remember this is a two way street the candidate is interviewing you as well! Let the candidate know the steps you will be following and the estimated timeframes so they can judge how much time to spend on questions. You might say that you will start with an overview of the job, ask questions about their background and experience, and close with answering their questions and explaining when they will hear your decision.

    28. Tell candidates you will be taking notes Tell the person about the job and duties Tips: Tell candidates in advance you are conducting a behavioral interview and want them to provide specific examples of accomplishments and results Consider giving them the questions in advance Continued Tell the candidate you will be taking notes to ensure a thorough and fair evaluation. Encourage them to take notes as well. Tell them about the job. The more they know about the specific duties, tasks, and responsibilities, the more likely they are to provide relevant examples of their experience. One tip if you state upfront that you are conducting a behavioral interview and are looking for specific accomplishments what they did, how they did it, the results-- you may get more complete answers. To avoid awkward silences and too general answers, interviewers recognize that some candidates are just not skilled at coming up with specific examples of behaviors on the spot. Therefore, they may allow anywhere from 10-30 minutes prior to the interview for the candidate to review the questions. Some interviewers even send the candidate the questions several days in advance. Tell the candidate you will be taking notes to ensure a thorough and fair evaluation. Encourage them to take notes as well. Tell them about the job. The more they know about the specific duties, tasks, and responsibilities, the more likely they are to provide relevant examples of their experience. One tip if you state upfront that you are conducting a behavioral interview and are looking for specific accomplishments what they did, how they did it, the results-- you may get more complete answers. To avoid awkward silences and too general answers, interviewers recognize that some candidates are just not skilled at coming up with specific examples of behaviors on the spot. Therefore, they may allow anywhere from 10-30 minutes prior to the interview for the candidate to review the questions. Some interviewers even send the candidate the questions several days in advance.

    29. Ask questions Use the 25/75 rule (interviewer talks 25% of time; candidate talks 75% of time) Start with open-ended questions that encourage candidates to talk (your prepared behavioral questions) Use closed questions to confirm a point Body of the interview During the body of the interview you want to determine how well the applicant meets the requirements of the job. As an interviewer, it is you job to get the candidate to talk. A good rule of thumb is the 25/75 rule. The interviewer(s) talk no more than 25% of the time; the interviewee should talk about 75% of the time. Ask your behavioral questions in the planned order. You may omit some questions if they are answered along the way. Start by asking open-ended questions that encourage people to talk. Ask closed questions to confirm a point. Am I correct that you graduated from CSUS with a degree in counseling? During the body of the interview you want to determine how well the applicant meets the requirements of the job. As an interviewer, it is you job to get the candidate to talk. A good rule of thumb is the 25/75 rule. The interviewer(s) talk no more than 25% of the time; the interviewee should talk about 75% of the time. Ask your behavioral questions in the planned order. You may omit some questions if they are answered along the way. Start by asking open-ended questions that encourage people to talk. Ask closed questions to confirm a point. Am I correct that you graduated from CSUS with a degree in counseling?

    30. Use follow up questions to delve deeper into an area or to clarify a point Tell us more about. Can you give us another example of Can you give more specifics Can you elaborate on exactly what your role was in. Body of the Interview Dont be afraid to ask follow-up questions if an answer seems incomplete. It is your job to find out if the person has the experience and background needed to perform the job. So if you ask about presentation skills and the person says they have made presentations, it is not only permissible, but even necessary, to probe further with questions such as what type of presentations and what type of audience. Other follow up questions might include: For example, Tell us more about. Can you give us another example of Can you give more specifics Can you elaborate on exactly what (how, where, why, when) you did.. You may also need to ask follow up questions to probe into any areas that seem inconsistent or contradictory. Here And be sure to show interest in the personbe attentive, listen, and encourage them to share examples. But if you do have to cut them off, find a way to graciously redirect the conversation. For example, Well, lets move into another area. Dont be afraid to ask follow-up questions if an answer seems incomplete. It is your job to find out if the person has the experience and background needed to perform the job. So if you ask about presentation skills and the person says they have made presentations, it is not only permissible, but even necessary, to probe further with questions such as what type of presentations and what type of audience. Other follow up questions might include: For example, Tell us more about. Can you give us another example of Can you give more specifics Can you elaborate on exactly what (how, where, why, when) you did.. You may also need to ask follow up questions to probe into any areas that seem inconsistent or contradictory. Here And be sure to show interest in the personbe attentive, listen, and encourage them to share examples. But if you do have to cut them off, find a way to graciously redirect the conversation. For example, Well, lets move into another area.

    31. End on a clear and positive note by: Summarizing key information you heard Asking candidates if they have questions or additional information they want to share Providing clear follow-up information Staying neutral: dont discourage or create false expectations. Closing the interview When closing the interview, end on a clear and positive note. You can do this by Summarizing the key information you have heard about them, their experience, their background and education Asking if the candidates have any questions or information they want to share. Listen carefully to what questions are asked by the candidate. They can tell you a lot about the person. Does the person immediately ask about alternate work schedule, days off, etc. If so, it may be an indication they are more interested in time off than the actual work. Or do they ask about the job duties, the type of assignments they will have, and who they will be working with? Such questions may indicate more interest in the work they will be doing and who they will be doing it with. Providing clear follow up information. Let the candidate know what comes next-- when will they hear your decision or if any other paperwork needs to be provided. Above all else, stay neutral. Dont discourage or overly encourage any candidate. You never know who will walk in next. When closing the interview, end on a clear and positive note. You can do this by Summarizing the key information you have heard about them, their experience, their background and education Asking if the candidates have any questions or information they want to share. Listen carefully to what questions are asked by the candidate. They can tell you a lot about the person. Does the person immediately ask about alternate work schedule, days off, etc. If so, it may be an indication they are more interested in time off than the actual work. Or do they ask about the job duties, the type of assignments they will have, and who they will be working with? Such questions may indicate more interest in the work they will be doing and who they will be doing it with. Providing clear follow up information. Let the candidate know what comes next-- when will they hear your decision or if any other paperwork needs to be provided. Above all else, stay neutral. Dont discourage or overly encourage any candidate. You never know who will walk in next.

    32. Make notes: Focus on specifics Use quotes when possible Make sure notes are objective and job related Immediately after the interview Immediately after the interview make notes while the candidates answers are still fresh in your mind. They will help you rate candidates more objectively. Some tips are: Focus on the specifics. What examples did they provide? Use quotes when possible. Make sure all comments are objective and job-related. These notes become part of the file. Immediately after the interview make notes while the candidates answers are still fresh in your mind. They will help you rate candidates more objectively. Some tips are: Focus on the specifics. What examples did they provide? Use quotes when possible. Make sure all comments are objective and job-related. These notes become part of the file.

    33. Rate candidate against the selection criteria Use the scale you have developed Rate separately and then discuss and come to consensus on the rating Evaluate your own performance: How did you do? Continued Rate the candidate using the scale you have developed. Make sure you focus on your key selection criteria. Some quiet candidates can be the best hire. It all depends on the job! Interviewers should rate separately, then discuss the ratings with the other interviewer(s) and come to consensus on the rating. Often two people can perceive an example or situation differently. It is the discussion that is critical when making your decision. Keep in mind that the person with the highest rating may not be the final selection. You still have other steps in the selection process. Unless your HR Office says differently, the final score is just an indicator of who you may select, not must select. Then evaluate your own performance: How did you do? What did you learn from this experience? Did you develop effective questions that got you the information you needed? Did the interviewers rate consistently? Did you talk too much? Did you handle awkward silences effectively? Always remember- the candidate is also assessing you! They also get an impression of whether this is an organization where they want to work. So learn from each experience. Rate the candidate using the scale you have developed. Make sure you focus on your key selection criteria. Some quiet candidates can be the best hire. It all depends on the job! Interviewers should rate separately, then discuss the ratings with the other interviewer(s) and come to consensus on the rating. Often two people can perceive an example or situation differently. It is the discussion that is critical when making your decision. Keep in mind that the person with the highest rating may not be the final selection. You still have other steps in the selection process. Unless your HR Office says differently, the final score is just an indicator of who you may select, not must select. Then evaluate your own performance: How did you do? What did you learn from this experience? Did you develop effective questions that got you the information you needed? Did the interviewers rate consistently? Did you talk too much? Did you handle awkward silences effectively? Always remember- the candidate is also assessing you! They also get an impression of whether this is an organization where they want to work. So learn from each experience.

    34. Review Official Personnel Files Conduct behavioral reference checks You are not done yettwo more steps But even after you rate the interviewee, your job is not done. There are two more critical steps in an effective interviewing process. Work with your HR Office to ensure all the information you rely on during the selection process is appropriate. If interviewing State employees, review the Official Personnel Files (OPF) of top candidates. To do this, you will need a release signed by the candidate. If you go in person to review the file, be sure to take the candidates application and see if it matches other applications that may be in the file. For more information on file reviews and a sample Authorization to Review A File form, click on the link on this slide. And for all candidates, dont forget to conduct behavioral reference checks. This is a valuable means of gathering information about job candidates to make an informed hiring decision.But even after you rate the interviewee, your job is not done. There are two more critical steps in an effective interviewing process. Work with your HR Office to ensure all the information you rely on during the selection process is appropriate. If interviewing State employees, review the Official Personnel Files (OPF) of top candidates. To do this, you will need a release signed by the candidate. If you go in person to review the file, be sure to take the candidates application and see if it matches other applications that may be in the file. For more information on file reviews and a sample Authorization to Review A File form, click on the link on this slide. And for all candidates, dont forget to conduct behavioral reference checks. This is a valuable means of gathering information about job candidates to make an informed hiring decision.

    35. Ask for specifics by using behavioral questions Ask about examples the candidate gave during the interview Stumped as to what to askCheck out the Reference Question Bank on the Virtual Help Desk Capture the information you obtain using the Reference Check Form on the Virtual Help Desk Behavioral Reference Checks When doing reference checks, you may hear both positive and negative things. The key to getting useful information is in how you ask questions. Just as in the actual interview, ask behavioral reference check questions. When you ask for specific information, there is a better chance you give more useful information than Joe was great. If you dont know what to ask, check out the Reference Question Bank on the Virtual Help Desk. There are many idea starters. Be sure to ask about examples the candidate provided during the interview to confirm what was said. You will also find a Reference Check Form you can use to record the answers you get. Additional sample questions are on the next slide. When doing reference checks, you may hear both positive and negative things. The key to getting useful information is in how you ask questions. Just as in the actual interview, ask behavioral reference check questions. When you ask for specific information, there is a better chance you give more useful information than Joe was great. If you dont know what to ask, check out the Reference Question Bank on the Virtual Help Desk. There are many idea starters. Be sure to ask about examples the candidate provided during the interview to confirm what was said. You will also find a Reference Check Form you can use to record the answers you get.

    36. Writing This job requires writing and editing papers with minimal supervision. Does Mary perform this type of work in her current position? If so, what is your assessment of her writing and editing skills? What types of documents has she written and edited? Change Leadership Did Jordan deal with any major change or upheaval while he was with your organization? What was the change and how did he deal with it? Examples of Behavioral Reference Check Questions Here are two examples of behavioral reference check questions. You will see they may parallel the questions you prepared for the actual interview. For ability to write, you might ask: This job requires writing and editing papers with minimal supervision. Does Mary perform this type of work in her current position? If so, what is your assessment of her writing and editing skills? What types of documents has she written and edited? For skill in change leadership, you might ask: Did Jordan deal with any major change or upheaval while he was with your organization? What was the change and how did he deal with it? :ike the interview, think about your job. What is it you really need to know about the person to determine if the person is the right match for the job? What questions will you ask to get that information? Here are two examples of behavioral reference check questions. You will see they may parallel the questions you prepared for the actual interview. For ability to write, you might ask: This job requires writing and editing papers with minimal supervision. Does Mary perform this type of work in her current position? If so, what is your assessment of her writing and editing skills? What types of documents has she written and edited? For skill in change leadership, you might ask: Did Jordan deal with any major change or upheaval while he was with your organization? What was the change and how did he deal with it? :ike the interview, think about your job. What is it you really need to know about the person to determine if the person is the right match for the job? What questions will you ask to get that information?

    37. Support your selection or non-selection Check with your HR Office as to what is required, or Dont forget to notify all candidates about the results Document your selection The next step is to document your selectionwhat is needed to support the selection or non-selection of a candidate. Check with your HR Office as to what documentation is required. Avoid getting into the situation where there is not sufficient information to justify the decision. Do a thorough and complete job and document your process. If you plan your interview carefully, you have most of your documentation already. Once you have made a commitment from the selected candidate, it is time to notify all candidates about the hiring decision. The next step is to document your selectionwhat is needed to support the selection or non-selection of a candidate. Check with your HR Office as to what documentation is required. Avoid getting into the situation where there is not sufficient information to justify the decision. Do a thorough and complete job and document your process. If you plan your interview carefully, you have most of your documentation already. Once you have made a commitment from the selected candidate, it is time to notify all candidates about the hiring decision.

    38. Start planning the new employees on-boarding process! Celebrate and And one more step in the selection processCelebrate and start planning for the new employees on-boarding process. And where to start? With the same knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors you hired for. Where are the growth opportunities between what your new candidate brings to the job and desired knowledge, skills and abilities? Those are the areas you want to target for training or other development activities right away. But if you picked the right person with the right skills for the right job, you have substantially reduced the time it will take to make the new employee a contributing and productive member of your team! And one more step in the selection processCelebrate and start planning for the new employees on-boarding process. And where to start? With the same knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors you hired for. Where are the growth opportunities between what your new candidate brings to the job and desired knowledge, skills and abilities? Those are the areas you want to target for training or other development activities right away. But if you picked the right person with the right skills for the right job, you have substantially reduced the time it will take to make the new employee a contributing and productive member of your team!

    39. Thank you for taking this training! Send feedback or questions to HRModFeedback@dpa.ca.gov For more information, visit the HR Modernization website. Thank you for taking this training. We hope you enjoyed the presentation and found the information useful. Feedback and questions can be sent HRModFeedback@dpa.ca.gov. Fore more information on interviewing and other topics of interest, visit the HR Modernization website. Thank you for taking this training. We hope you enjoyed the presentation and found the information useful. Feedback and questions can be sent HRModFeedback@dpa.ca.gov. Fore more information on interviewing and other topics of interest, visit the HR Modernization website.