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The Plant Kingdom

The Plant Kingdom. What is a plant?. Eukaryotic Multicellular Most are photosynthetic autotrophs Some are carnivores Some are saprophytes Aquatic and terrestrial Highly adapted and biochemically complex!. What kinds of growth forms are found in plants?. Aquatic Ground cover Herbaceous

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The Plant Kingdom

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  1. The Plant Kingdom

  2. What is a plant? • Eukaryotic • Multicellular • Most are photosynthetic autotrophs • Some are carnivores • Some are saprophytes • Aquatic and terrestrial • Highly adapted and biochemically complex!

  3. What kinds of growth forms are found in plants? • Aquatic • Ground cover • Herbaceous • Shrubs • Vines • Trees: midstory and canopy

  4. Why are plants important? • Oxygen • Food • Clothing • Shelter • Medicine • Ecosystem services • Esthetic value

  5. How are plant cells structured? • Chromosomes in a nucleus • Chloroplasts in cytoplasm • Other organelles in cytoplasm including: mitochondria, vacuoles, ribosomes, ER, Golgi bodies • Bounded by cell membrane • Outside cell membrane is cell wall

  6. Other cell structures in plants • Stomata/stoma—openings in between plant cells in leaves for “breathing” • Guard cells—surround stomata, for opening and closing • Together these structures regulate transpiration—the process by which the water cycle flows through plant leaves

  7. General plant cell

  8. What two vital cellular processes occur in plants? • Photosynthesis—process by which light energy is chemically converted into organic compounds Carbon dioxide + water In the presence of of sunlight and chlorophyll  Oxygen + Glucose

  9. Cellular respiration • —process by which organic compounds and energy are made by all organisms Oxygen + Glucose In the presence of enzymes  Carbon dioxide + water + energy (ATP)

  10. What are major plant structures?

  11. Early plants looked very different • Some did not have distinguishable stems or leaves • Many modern plants have some similarities to ancient plants • Less complex plants have simpler structures

  12. Stems are the most noticeable part of most plants • Stems—normally connect leaves with roots • Vascular tissue—conducting tissues in plants composed of • Xylem that has thick walled, hollow cells that carry water and minerals upward from a plant’s roots to its leaves • Phloem is made of tubes and pores that carry nutrients throughout a plant

  13. Nonvascular and vascular plants-- • Nonvascular plants are mosses, liverworts, and hornworts • Do not need vessels because • Types of habitats-- • Division:

  14. Nonvascular and vascular plants-- • Vascular plants have xylem and phloem, allowing them to live in many different environments other than— • Include other divisions such as--

  15. Stems types • Herbaceous plants have soft, green stems • Woody stems have structures • Young stem has central core of pith • More mature stems have layers of xylem that form most of the wood • A cylinder of phloem is outside the xylem • Outside covered by cork

  16. Life of wood • The layers of cork and phloem make up the bark of a tree • Wood in center is heartwood, doesn’t conduct water, gives support • Sapwood lies outside heartwood and does conduct water • Bark encloses heartwood & sapwood

  17. Bark, sapwood, heartwood

  18. Energy makers: LeavesParts of leaves

  19. Simple leaves

  20. Compound leaves

  21. Compound leaves

  22. Holding it all together: roots • Types: taproot and adventitious • Root hairs and root caps

  23. What are reproductive parts of plants? • Spore • Cone • Flower • Fruit • Seed

  24. Spores from ferns

  25. Spores from Club Moss

  26. Cones--Pinecone

  27. Cones--Ginkgo

  28. Flowers

  29. More flowers!

  30. Fruit

  31. More fruit

  32. Seeds

  33. More seeds

  34. And more seeds!

  35. How are plants classified? • Kingdom Plantae • Instead of being classified into PHYLA, plants are classified into DIVISIONS! • Based on structures, especially reproductive structures

  36. Division Bryophyta app. 16,000 sp • Examples: Mosses, hornworts and liverworts • Sexual reproduction by: spores; flagellated sperm are in the antheridium and swim to the egg in the archegonium • Description: Nonvascular; small, close to the ground and to water sources; no true roots, leaves or stems; anchor with rhizoids • Habitat: close to streams in forests

  37. Division Psilophytaapp. 10 sp • Examples: Whisk ferns • Sexual reproduction by: spores • Description: No true leaves; plant looks like mass of green stems; rare; vascular • Habitat: Tropical rainforests

  38. Whisk fern

  39. Lycopodiophyta or Lycophytaapp. 15 sp. • Examples: Club mosses • Sexual reproduction by: spores • Description: scale-like leaves and stems; has true roots; vascular • Habitat: Rich woods, undisturbed areas; rare; common and tree-like 300 million years ago

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