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Chemical Reactions of Organic compounds

Chemical Reactions of Organic compounds

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Chemical Reactions of Organic compounds

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  1. Faculty of Biotechnology OrganicChemistry Chapter 3 Chemical Reactions of Organic compounds Dr. M. Abd-Elhakeem

  2. Oxidations and Reductions Organic Redox Reactions

  3. Generally organic oxidation include gain of oxygen or loss of hydrogen Reduction shows gain of hydrogen or loss of oxygen.

  4. Primary alcohols are oxidized by KCr2O7 to aldehydes that rapidly oxidized to carboxylic acids • Secondary alcohols are oxidized at slower rate to give ketones • Tertiary alcohols not able to oxidized Alcohols oxidation

  5. As we studied previously the double bond of the alkenes and alkynes is very weak thus make addition reactions at mild conditions. • Alkenes are oxidized by potassium permanganate (unsaturation test) at room temperature to give diol

  6. when the last reaction is done by hot permanganate solution the compound is raptured around the double bond and the two part transform to acid

  7. Alkynes also oxidized by KMnO4 and give the corresponding acids

  8. All (alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl) substitution on the benzene ring oxidized to COOH group independent on the initial chain size

  9. When aliphatic aldehydes are heated in concentrated NaOH two molecules react with each other one of them oxidized to form acid and the other is reduced to give alcohol Which known as Cannizaro reaction

  10. Using of hydrogen as reducing agent in presence of platinum as catalyst is very efficient reducing agent able to reduce any group Reduction

  11. For more selectivity, we can use NaBH4 that able to reduce carbonyl group only

  12. Carbonyl group can be removed completely to form alkane by using zinc amulgum. Reduction of nitro group give amino group

  13. Practice