Download
teori teori pembangunan sumber manusia n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Teori-teori Pembangunan Sumber Manusia PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Teori-teori Pembangunan Sumber Manusia

Teori-teori Pembangunan Sumber Manusia

805 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Teori-teori Pembangunan Sumber Manusia

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Teori-teori Pembangunan Sumber Manusia

  2. Grid Penguruan Blake dan Mouton Sistem Likert Teori Z Ouchi Teori Argyris

  3. Grid Pengurusan Blake dan Mouton Teori ini diperkenalkan pada 1964 bertujuan menerangkan huraian gaya kepimpinan pengurus untuk tujuan meningkatkan kecekapan dan keberkesanan organisasi. Pengurus yang efisyen: • Tumpu kepada pekerja (Teori Hubungan Kemanusiaan) • Tumpu kepada produktiviti (Teori Pengurusan Klasikal dan Saintifik)

  4. Grid Pengurusan Blake dan Mouton Grid kepimpinan utk menerangkan gaya kepimpinan. LIMA jenis gaya pengurusan: • Pengurusan Lemah (Impoverished Management) • Pengurusan Kelab Riadah (Country Club Management) • Authority-Compliance • Pengurusan Pasukan (Team Management) • Pengurusan Pertengahan (Mid-of-the-Road Management)

  5. The New Managerial Grid Insert Figure 2.2

  6. Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid • Authority Compliance (9,1) • Classical theory • Country Club (1,9) • Informal grapevine • Impoverished (1,1) • Laissez-faire • Middle-of-the-Road (5,5) • Compromise (carrot & stick) • Team (9,9) • Human Resources Approach • Promote the conditions that integrate creativity, high productivity, and high morale through concerted team action

  7. Likert’s System of Management • Exploitive Autocratic • Benevolent Autocratic • Consultative • Participative Team

  8. Perbezaan keempat-empat sistem ada dari aspek motivasi, komunikasi, pembuatan keputusan, penyediaan maklumat, kawalan, struktur pengaruh dan persepsi. • Kajian Likert mendapati kebanyakan organisasi mengamalkan sistem 4 ( Pembabitan Organisasi/ Participative Team) • Ciri-ciri sistem 4: • Terdapat hubungan saling membantu ketua dan pekerja bawahan. • Proses pembuatan keputusan adalah secara kolektif. • Ahli organisasi juga merupakan ahli unit dalam organisasi. • Organisasi mempunyai matlamat pencapaian tinggi.

  9. Teori Z Ouchi Teori alternatif kepada Teori X dan Y dan teori ini adalah berdasarkan corak pengurusan Jepun. Teori Z lebih mengutamakan pembentukan dan penyuburan sumber manusia dalam organisasi. Teori Argyris Menekankan peranan individu dalam organisasi. Menyokong komunikasi terbuka dalam organisasi dan penglibatan dlm membuat keputusan.

  10. Implikasi Teori-teori Sumber Manusia terhadap Komunikasi

  11. Kesimpulan Pendekatan Sumber Manusia dalam pengurusan adalah kesan kelemahan Teori Hubungan Kemanusiaan. Prinsip-prinsip Sumber Manusia dapat dibentuk dalam organisasi menerusi partisipasi, proses pembuatan keputusan, daya inovasi. Ini jelas menerusi teori Grid Pengurusan Blake dan Mouton, Sistem Likert 4, Teori Z Ouchi dan Teori Argyris. Terdapat sifat kepelbagaian dalam komunikasi dalam organisasi sumber manusia.

  12. Teori Sistem Ludwig Von Bertalanffy Merujuk kepada organisasi sebagai mempunyai TIGA komponen: Susunan Hierarki (Hierarchical Ordering) Pembentukan organisasi menyerupai satu sistem yang kompleks seperti sistem biologi tubuh manusia. Di dalam sistem tersebut terdapat sub-sistem yang membantu proses pengorganisasian. Saling Bergantung dan Memerlukan (Interdependence) Satu sistem yang besar memerlukan sub-sistem yang kecil untuk beroperasi. Keterbukaan (Permeability) Organisasidiandaikan sebagai organism hidup yang memerlukan elemen luar untuk beroperasi. Elemen keterbukaan menyebabkan organisasi menerima inovasi luar.

  13. Proses Sistem Sistem diterjemahkan menerusi proses input-throughput-output. “inputs” adalah bahan atau maklumat persekitaran luar yang masuk ke dalam organisasi menerusi elemen keterbukaan. Menerusi proses transformasi aktiviti “throughput” berlaku dan menghasilkan “output”.

  14. Sistem mentransformasikan output kepada environment luar e.g. Kilang Perabut  perabut  public Bahan mentah “input” “throughput” “output”

  15. Ciri-ciri Sistem Holistik -- Sistem diterangkan sebagai menyeluruh/ besar. Sesuatu sistem itu bersifat holistik kerana setiap anggota sistem bergantung antara satu dengan yang lain. Organisasi juga akan kukuh apabila terdapat amalan berkerja bersama. Equifinality -- Untuk mencapai sesuatu matlamat itu banyak cara yang boleh dilakukan. Pelbagai cara tersebut akan dilakukan untuk tujuan pencapaian metlamat organisasi.

  16. Entropi Negatif -- Kecenderungan sistem yang mengamalkan dasar tertutup untuk mengalami kemusnahan. Sistem yang mengamalkan dasar terbuka mampu menghalang kemusnahan. Kepelbagaian Keperluan -- Kepelbagaian kaedah untuk mengawal pelbagai cabaran yang mungkin muncul daripada persekitaran sistem.

  17. Teori Sistem Sibernetiks -- dikembangkan oleh Norbert Wiener 1948 – 1954. Fokus kepada penerangan bagaimana satu sistem berupaya mencapai keseimbangan atau homeostasis kerana kewujudan pelbagai komponen yang saling berkait. Sistem Sibernertiks mementingkan tindak balas dalam memastikan keupayaan untuk berfungsi.

  18. Teori Maklumat -- Teori yang menekankan kepentingan maklumat dalam organisasi. Pertukaran maklumat merupakan keperluan kepada organisasi.

  19. Teori Budaya Organisasi • Fokus terhadap apakah itu organisasi? Apakah yang dipunyai oleh organisasi. • Empat komponen budaya kukuh: • Nilai • Wira (Heroes) • Upacara dan Amalan (Rituals) • Jaringan Budaya

  20. Budaya Organisasi adalah kompleks Budaya organisasi diterjemahkan menerusi upacara, peraturan komunikasi, “cerita”, kepercayaan, simbol. Kemunculan Budaya Organisasi adalah hasil interaksi ahli dalam organisasi. Walau bagaimanapun tidak wujud satu Budaya Organisasi yang unggul.

  21. Budaya organisasi mempunyai kesan terhadap bentuk dan struktur organisasi. Menerusi kajian berbentuk deskriptif pengkaji akan dapat memahami budaya organisasi dan mengenali organisasi tersebut. Budaya penting terhadap mengarahkan kejayaan organisasi.

  22. Apakah dengan melihat bangunan tersebut anda dapat memahami budaya organisasi tersebut?

  23. Human Resources Approaches

  24. PREVIEW The classical approaches sees worker as cogs in a machine that can be easily replaced. The role of workers in these theories is to provide physical labor. Classical manager would look at employees with the perspective “workers work”, the human relations manager would look at employees with the perspective “workers feel”

  25. Human Resources Approach Individuals in organizations have feelings that must be considered and also recognize contributions from employees: thoughts & ideas.

  26. Impetus for Human Resources Approach • Humanistic theories were developed to promote the CONCERNS of the individual worker in an atmosphere that was too focused on production (FOCUS ON RELATIONAL & MAINTENANCE FUNCTIONS) • The Hawthorne studies --- springboard the move from classical to human relations. • Human relations approach states that higher-order needs can be satisfied through job design, management style, other organizational factors. When the higher-order needs are satisfied, employees should be happier. When employees are happier, they should be more productive.

  27. Principles of Human Relations Theory • Human relations theory is characterized by a shift in emphasis from TASK to WORKER • Go beyond physical contributions to include creative, cognitive, and emotional aspects of workers • Based on a more dyadic (two-way) conceptualization of communication. • SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS are at the heart of organizational behavior--effectiveness is contingent on the social well-being of workers • Workers communicate opinions, complaints, suggestions, and feelings to increase satisfaction and production • Origins (Hawthorne Studies & work of Chester Barnard) • Human Relations School of Management - Elton Mayo (Harvard

  28. Origins of Human Relations Theory • “The Hawthorne Studies • Hawthorne Works of Western Electric Company • 1924 - Chicago • Research focus: Relation of quality and quantity of illumination to efficiency in industry • Four Important Studies

  29. “The Hawthorne Studies” • Illumination Study (November 1924) • Designed to test the effect of lighting intensity on worker productivity • Heuristic value: influence of human relations on work behavior • Relay Assembly Test Room Study (1927-1932) • Assembly of telephone relays (35 parts - 4 machine screws) • Production and satisfaction increased regardless of IV manipulation • Workers’ increased production and satisfaction related to supervisory practices • Human interrelationships are important contributing factors to worker productivity • Bottom Line: Supervisory practices increase employee morale AND productivity • Interviewing Program (1928-1930) • Investigate connection between supervisory practices and employee morale • Employees expressed their ideas and feelings (e.g., likes and dislikes) • Process more important than actual results • Bank Wiring Room Observation Study (November 1931 - May 1932) • Social groups can influence production and individual work behavior • RQ: How is social control manifested on the shop floor? • Informal organization constrains employee behavior within formal organizational structure

  30. Hawthorne Studies - Implications • Illumination Study (November 1924) • The mere practice of observing people’s behavior tends to alter their behavior (Hawthorne Effect) • Relay Assembly Test Room Study (1927-1932) • Relationships between workers and their supervisors are powerful • Human interrelationships increase the amount and quality of worker participation in decision making • Interviewing Program (1928-1930) • Demonstrated powerful influence of upward communication • Workers were asked for opinions, told they mattered, and positive attitudes toward company increased • Bank Wiring Room Observation Study (November 1931 - May 1932) • Led future theorists to account for the existence of informal communication • Taken together, these studies helped to document the powerful nature of social relations in the workplace and moved managers more toward the interpersonal aspects of organizing.

  31. Hawthorne Studies - Criticisms • Not conducted with the appropriate scientific rigor necessary • Too few subjects (N=5) • No control groups • Subjects replaced with more “cooperative” participants • WORTHLESS • GROSS ERRORS • INCOMPETENCE

  32. Satisfaction of Higher-Order Needs Job Satisfaction Work Factors Productivity Flowchart of Human Relations Principles

  33. However, years of research have failed to support this. WHY? Satisfaction of Higher-Order Needs Job Satisfaction Work Factors Productivity Flowchart of Human Relations Principles

  34. Theory X and Theory Y: Douglas McGregor • Douglas McGregor (1906-1964) • Articulated basic principles of human relations theory • The Human Side of Enterprise (1960, 1985) • To understand human behavior, one must discover the theoretical assumptions upon which behavior is based • Especially interested in the behavior of managers toward workers • “Every managerial act rests on assumptions, generalizations, and hypotheses--that is to say, on theory . . . Theory and practice are inseparable.” • Two Objectives: • Predict and control behavior • Tap Unrealized potential • Theory X - Classical Theory • Theory Y - Human Relations Theory • FOCUS: Manager’s assumptions about HUMAN NATURE

  35. Theory X and Theory Y: Douglas McGregor • Theory X - Classical Theory • Three Assumptions • The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it. • Most people must be coerced, controlled, directed, and threatened with punishment • The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition, wants security. • Neither explains nor describes human nature

  36. Theory Y - Human Relations Theory • Assumptions • Physical and mental effort in work is similar to play / rest. • External control and the threat of punishment are not the only strategies • Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement • The average human being learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept but to seek responsibility • The capacity to exercise a high degree of imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely distributed in the population • Intellectual potentialities of the average human being are underutilized • A more positive perspective of human nature • The KEY to control and quality production is commitment to organizational objectives

  37. Miles’ Human Resources Theory • Increased satisfaction is related to the improved decision making and self-control that occurs due to participation that is genuinely solicited and heard • Two prevalent Human Resources Theories • Rensis Liker • Blake & Mouton (Blake & McCanse)

  38. Four Systems of Management: Rensis Likert • Management is crticial to all organizational activities and outcomes • Continuum that ranges from more classically oriented system to one based on human resources theory • Of all the tasks of management, managing the human component is the central and most important task • High producing departments and organizations tend toward System IV; low producing units favor System I • System I - Exploitative Authoritative • System II - Benevolent Authoritative • System III - Consultative • System IV - Participative

  39. Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid • Stresses interrelationship between production (task) and people • Management’s main purpose is to promote a culture in the organization that allows for high production at the same time that employees are fostered in their professional and personal development • Managerial Grid - now Leadership Grid (Blake & McCanse) (Figure 3.3, p. 59) • FOCUS: Manger’s Assumptions about CONCERN for PEOPLE and CONCERN for PRODUCTION • Assessment instrument does not represent personality traits of the manager -- instead, indicate a specific orientation to production and people

  40. Concern for PEOPLE • Degree of personal commitment to one’s job • Trust-based accountability (vs. obedience-based accountability) • Self-esteem for the individual • Interpersonal relationships with co-workers • Concern for PRODUCTION • Use of people and technology to accomplish organizational tasks • Concern for is not about quantity or quality • Assessment instrument does not represent personality traits of the manager -- instead, indicate a specific orientation to production and people

  41. Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid • Authority Compliance (9,1) • Classical theory • Country Club (1,9) • Informal grapevine • Impoverished (1,1) • Laissez-faire • Middle-of-the-Road (5,5) • Compromise (carrot & stick) • Team (9,9) • Human Resources Approach • Promote the conditions that integrate creativity, high productivity, and high morale through concerted team action

  42. SUMMARY • Humanistic Theories of Organizations • Human Relations Theory • The Hawthorne Studies • Chester Barnard • McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y • Human Resources Theory • Likert’s Systems Theory (Four Systems of Management) • Blake and Mouton’s (Blake and McCanse) Managerial Grid • The principles of human resources theory attempt to integrate the concern for production from classical theory with the concern for the worker from human relations theory -- more effective and satisfying!

  43. Motivation and Hygiene Factors Frederick Herzberg (1923 – 2000)

  44. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory • Focuses on outcomes that lead to higher motivation and job satisfaction, and those outcomes that can prevent dissatisfaction. • Motivator needs relate to the nature of the work itself—autonomy, responsibility, interesting work. • Hygiene needs are related to the physical and psychological context of the work—comfortable work environment, pay, job security. • Unsatisfied hygiene needs create dissatisfaction; satisfaction of hygiene needs does not lead to motivation or job satisfaction.

  45. Two-factor Theory (or Motivation-Hygiene Theory) • Herzberg: • Job context is source of dissatisfaction • Problems with hygiene factors (e.g., pay, working conditions) lead to dissatisfaction; lack of problems means lack of dissatisfaction • Job content is the source of job satisfaction • Motivator factors (e.g., achievement, responsibility) link with job performance; if high, satisfaction high and performance strong

  46. Two-factor Theory (or Motivation-Hygiene Theory) • Validity unconfirmed – not replicated using different methods • Still does not explain individual differences, professional or cultural differences