Unit One-Foundations • Students will be able to… • Explain the differences between primary and secondary sources and examine those sources to analyze frame of reference, historical context, and point-of-view • Describe how river valley civilizations developed and their impact on classical civilizations that followed • Analyze different political and legal systems from ancient river valley civilizations • Describe the development of ancient religious traditions and the idea of monotheism • Describe the various characteristics of art and architecture from each of the ancient river valley civilizations • Identify various technological developments and how they spread Content Specificity Students will know… Methods used by historians to analyze evidence Causes and the effects of the Neolithic Revolution Various political and legal systems of the ancient river valley civilizations (Mesopotamia/Egypt/India/China) Various characteristics of art and architecture of the period Technological developments of the various ancient river valley civilizations
Prehistory (cont.)Vocabulary: • Prehistory: Period before writing was developed • Archaeology: studies the structure of past societies by analyzing the artifacts– tools, household items, weapons, buildings, artworks, religious figures, etc. – people left behind. • Anthropology: focuses more on culture by studying artifacts and human remains– human fossils • Radiocarbon (C14 Dating): method of dating that measures the amount of radioactive carbon (C14) left in an object • Thermoluminescence: method of dating that measures the light given off by electrons trapped in the soil surrounding fossils and artifacts. Learning Target: Understand how prehistory investigations and assumptions are determined.
Prehistory (cont.)Vocabulary: • Three Stages of Human Development: • Hominids: human and other creatures that walked upright, made simple stone tools, and lived three to four million years ago. • Homo Erectus (“ upright human being”): emerged around 1.5 million years ago and used more varied tools. • Homo Sapiens (“wise human being”): live around 250,000 years ago and had two sub groups: • Neanderthals: used varied tools and the first to bury their dead ( possible proof they believed in afterlife). Found in Germany, Europe, and South and West Asia. • Homo Sapiens Sapiens (“wise wise human beings”): first to look like modern day humans. Began to spread outside Africa around 100,000 year ago.
Neolithic Revolution (cont.) • Paleolithic Age: from the Greek for “Old Stone”. The early period of human history, lasting from approximately 2,500,000 to 10,000 BC, during which humans used simple stone tools. Sometimes called the Stone Age. • Neolithic Revolution: sometime between 8000-6000 BC. humans made the transition from a food gathering society to a food producing society. They settled down to cultivate their food instead of following it. • Domestication: the adaptation or taming and controlling of plants and animals for human use. • Hunter-gatherer: a nomadic people who followed vegetation cycles in order to gather nuts, berries, fruits, wild grains, and green plants (80%) and who followed animal migrations in order to hunt and eat various animals, including buffalo, horses, bison, reindeer, and fish (20%). • Systematic agriculture: keeping animals and growing food on a regular basis (lasting effects throughout history, largest contribution to modern society). Learning Target: Identify major causes and effects of the development of agriculture.
Neolithic Revolution (cont.) • Nomadic: people who move from place to place, • Subsistence farming: the practice of growing just enough crops for personal use, not for sale. • Sedentary: requiring or marked by settling down in a permanent location. • Technology: refers to the ability of humans to make things that sustain them and give control over environment. • Civilization: a complex culture in which large number of human beings share a number of common elements (governments, religion, culture, etc.) • Artisan: skilled workers who made products such as weapons and jewelry for trade. • Monarchs:kings or queens who ruled a kingdom Learning Target: Identify major causes and effects of the development of agriculture.
Neolithic Revolution (cont.) • Paleolitic life: • Hunters and gatherers • Technology made it easier to live off the land ( sharper spears, fish hooks made of bones) • Lived in caves or simple structures made of sticks covered with animal skin • Used fire for disposing of the dead and cooking • Created art (cave painting mostly of animals) • Everyone shared equal responsibility for obtaining food • Neolithic Revolution • Systematic agriculture • Domestication of animals • Skilled workers • Permanent settlements • Surplus equals trade • Technology increased (advanced weapons, oil lamps, the wheel) • Roles and responsibilities changed • Created cities and large temples Learning Target: Identify major causes and effects of the development of agriculture.
Neolithic Revolution (cont.) Effects of Neolithic Revolution: Needed housing for protection and storing food Encouraged trade which caused specialization of crafts (tools) and division of labor Technology increased Fibers were used from plants to make cloth Women labored in the same place Men became more responsible for food and protecting the settlement creating a more dominant role. Learning Target: Identify major causes and effects of the development of agriculture.
Characteristics of Civilization • Culture: the way of life a people follow • Cultural pattern: the culture of a people is determined by how they respond to various factors that make up a cultural pattern. The factors include: environment, political, economic, religious, social structure, intellectual and technology, and artistic activity. • Civilization: a complex culture in which large numbers of people share a number of common elements such as social structure, religion and art. Learning target: understand characteristics of civilization and logic behind the location of ancient river valley civilizations
Characteristics of Civilization Six Characteristics of Civilizations: • Rise of Cities- large scale farming to feed populace • Growth of Governments- monarchs organized armies and made laws to regulate lives • Religion- explained forces of nature and human existence. Rituals were formed and gave priests power. • Social structure: • Upper class- priests, government officials, and warriors. • Free people- farmers, artisans, and crafts people. • Slaves- mainly used for large scale projects (building temples, etc.) • Writing-used for record keeping by the upper class • Art-temples, pyramids (for worship or burial), painting and sculptures (portrayed gods and goddesses or natural forces) Learning target: understand characteristics of civilization and logic behind the location of ancient river valley civilizations
River Valley Civilizations(Mesopotamia/Egypt/India/China) Vocabulary: • Cuneiform- “wedged-shaped” system of writing developed by the Sumerians using a reed stylus to create wedged shaped impressions on a clay tablet • Dynasty- a family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family • Fertile Crescent- the area between the Tigris and Euphrates; ancient Mesopotamia and present-day Iraq • Hieroglyphics-”priest carvings” or “sacred writings;” a complex system of writing that used both pictures and more abstract forms; used by ancient Egyptians and Mayans • Merchant seals-small carved seals used by Indus Valley merchants to keep track of trade • Monotheism-belief in one god Pharaoh-the most common of the various titles for ancient Egyptian monarch; the term originally meant “great house or palace” Learning target: compare political, economic and social characteristics of ancient River Valley civilizations.
River Valley Civilizations(Mesopotamia/Egypt/India/China) Vocabulary (cont.): • Polytheism-belief in many gods • Theocracy-government by divine authority • Ziggurat-massive stepped tower on which was built a temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a Sumerian city Learning target: compare political, economic and social characteristics of ancient River Valley civilizations.
Hammurabi Code and Hebrew Law Codification- the process of creating written law Hebrew-descendants of Abraham; a Jew; language of the Hebrews Old Testament- First half of the Bible; Hebrew account prior to the birth of Jesus Patrician- a social made up of minor land holders, crafts people, merchants, and small farmers Primary source- original document or artifact, such as, diaries, memoirs, pottery, birth and death certificates; magazine and newspaper articles from the time period Secondary source- material written about a time period after the fact, such as encyclopedia, text book, research papers Torah- the first five books of the Old Testament in the Bible Learning target: students can determine the role Hammurabi’s code and Hebrew law played in the evolution and formation of modern democratic governments.
Hammurabi Code and Hebrew Law Learning target: students can determine the role Hammurabi’s code and Hebrew law played in the evolution and formation of modern democratic governments. Hammurabi Code was Mesopotamia’s most complete set of laws. The law emphasizes the principle of retribution (“an eye for an eye”) and punishments that vary according to social status.
Hammurabi Code and Hebrew Law Learning target: students can determine the role Hammurabi’s code and Hebrew law played in the evolution and formation of modern democratic governments. • Indo-Europeans were pastoral nomads who domesticated animals for food and clothing • Moved along regular routes for steady sources of food for animals • Traded with civilizations • Helped with trade routes • Passed along technology to other civilizations • Eventually the Assyrians created an empire through brutal means (see pg. 63 for map).
Hinduism and Caste System(pgs. 75-77) • Around 1500 B.C., The Aryans (Indo-European nomads) moved south across the Hindu Kush mountain range in to northern India. The meeting of conquered and conqueror created a set of social institutions and class divisions that last to this day. • The caste system was one of the most important Indian social creations which consists of five major classes or castes in part based on skin color: • Brahmans-Aryan ruling elites and the priests • Kshatriyas- warriors • Vaisyas- merchants • Sudras-darker-skinned native peasants who did manual labor and their rights were limited (majority) • Untouchables-lowest rung of Indian society. Performed degrading jobs like collecting trash and handling the dead (five percent of population). Not considered human and their presence was considered harmful. Learning Target: Students can analyze the impact of Hinduism and the caste system on the Indus River Valley people.
Hinduism and Caste System • Hinduism (majority religion): • Based on Aryan religious beliefs. • Vedas (a collection of hymns and beliefs, make up the Hindu sacred text. • The individual self (atman) had a duty to come to know the ultimate reality, God (Brahman), • Belief in reincarnation, idea that after death the individual soul is reborn in different form. After many existences the soul may unite with Brahman (the goal). • Karma refers to the idea that people’s actions determine their form of rebirth and the class into which they are reborn (if born a person). Learning Target: Students can analyze the impact of Hinduism and the caste system on the Indus River Valley people.
Hinduism and Caste System • Hinduism (cont.) • Dharma, divine law, rules karma. Requires all people to do their duty. The higher the caste, the higher the social duties and expectations. • Yoga (union) was developed as a practice to achieve oneness with God. • Hinduism has hundreds of deities which give ordinary Hindus a way to express their everyday religious feelings. Top three are: • Brahma the Creator, • Vishnu the Preserver • Siva the Destroyer Learning Target: Students can analyze the impact of Hinduism and the caste system on the Indus River Valley people.