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  2. SECTION 1-Washington Heads the New Gov’t • George Washington had no desire to be the president after the Constitutional Convention; he wanted to retire to his home in Mt. Vernon, Virginia. • The American people had different ideas and Washington was the unanimous choice for the first presidential election in 1789. He reluctantly accepted.

  3. One of the 1st things that Washington and Congress did was to create a judicial system. • The Judiciary Act of 1789 provided for a Supreme Court with 6 judges, federal circuit courts, and federal district courts. • It also stated that federal laws were the “supreme law of the land” in cases involving state disputes of constitutional issues.


  5. When Washington took office, the executive branch only consisted of the Pres and VP. • To help these leaders govern, Congress approved the Dept of State (foreign affairs), Dept of War (military affairs), and Dept of Treasury (financial affairs) • Washington chose Thomas Jefferson, Henry Knox, and Alexander Hamilton to be in charge of these depts. • These men were the president’s advisors, Cabinet.

  6. Hamilton and Jefferson were both brilliant men, but both had very different political views and often disagreed.

  7. Hamilton believed that gov’t should be led by the prosperous, educated, upper-class. He believed that trade and industry were the keys to a strong nation with a strong nat’l gov’t. He also proposed a plan to manage the country’s debts and established a nat’l banking system. Hamilton found favor with Northern states. Jefferson distrusted a strong nat’l gov’t. He favored strong state and local gov’ts. He favored a society based on farmer-citizens. Jefferson’s views won support in the Southern and Western states. Hamilton vs. Jefferson

  8. Hamilton’s nat’l banking system proposed to pay off foreign debts and issue bonds. • Also, he believed that the federal gov’t should absorb state debts so that creditors would be willing to support the new gov’t. • The Bank of the US (BUS) would issue paper $$ and handle gov’t funds.

  9. Many people argued that the BUS would tie the gov’t too close to wealthy business interests. • In order to gain support for the BUS in the South, Hamilton proposed that the nation’s capitol be moved to the South-between VA and MD. • Southerners agreed and the capitol was created in Washington, D.C.

  10. Washington, D.C.Plans proposed by Pierre L’Enfant, Andrew Ellicott and Benjamin Banneker

  11. Washington tried to solve the differences between Hamilton and Jefferson, but was unable. • This gave rise to the nation’s first political parties and the two party system. • Hamilton’s supporters were called the Federalists, while Jefferson’s called themselves the Democratic-Republicans.

  12. During Washington’s 2nd term, an event occurred that showed the tension between federal and regional values. • In 1789 Congress had passed a protective tariff (tax on imported goods) and an excise tax on the manufacture of whiskey. • Since whiskey is made from corn, farmers were hurt the most by the new tax.

  13. Farmers in PA refused to pay the tax and threatened to secede from the Union. • The Whiskey Rebellion was eventually put down by 15,000 militiamen without the loss of life.

  14. Homework: Read pages 188-189. On a piece of notebook paper, answer the following questions: • What was the difference b/t a country and city education? • How did schooling for girls differ from boys? • What types of work did young boys and girls do? • How did many young people spend their leisure time? • What were common causes of death for children in the 18th and 19th century? • From the Revolution to WWI, how young were some boys in the military? • Colonial law forbade the execution of children under _____. • What is capital punishment? • When and where was the first time the workday for children under the age of 12 limited to 10 hours? • Relate any of the content in this reading to a current event, and explain how it relates.

  15. SECTION 2-Foreign Affairs Trouble the Nation • After the American Revolution, the French also began a revolution of their own to overthrow the monarchy. • The French also declared war on England. • Dem-Rep wanted to support France and Fed wanted to back the British. • Pres Washington decided on neutrality-to support neither side.

  16. The British began intercepting US ships they believed were bound for France and impressing their sailors (taking sailors captive and forcing them to serve the British). • This was intended to hurt the French, but hurt the US’ ability to trade.

  17. Chief Justice John Jay negotiated a treaty with England so that they would give up land in the Northwest and leave the Caribbean open for free trade.

  18. In 1796 Washington retired from the presidency after two terms. • Fed nominated John Adams (Pres) and Thomas Pinckney (VP). • Dem-Rep nominated Thomas Jefferson (Pres) and Aaron Burr (VP). • Adams became Pres and Jefferson became VP. This meant Pres and VP were from opposing political parties.

  19. This election showed the degree of sectionalism in the country because the North had voted for Adams and the South had voted for Jefferson. • Shortly after the election the French became angry about Jay’s Treaty and seized American ships. • The French (through the use of secret agents calling themselves X, Y, & Z) demanded bribes in order to stop the problem. • Pres Adams solved the XYZ Affair by using diplomacy.

  20. Despite his efforts, Adams was criticized and accused of favoring immigrants. • The Fed passed the Alien and Sedition Acts. • These acts made it harder for immigrants to become citizens (requirements were raised from 5 to 14 yrs) and handed out harsher punishments for people who criticized the gov’t. • The President could also deport or jail anyone considered “undesirable.”

  21. KY and VA refused to abide by the acts. They acted on the idea of nullification-that states could refuse to obey federal laws they believed unconstitutional.

  22. SECTION 3-Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course • The Pres election of 1800 was a huge struggle b/t Jefferson (Dem-Rep) and J. Adams (Fed). • Aaron Burr, who was Jefferson’s running mate actually tied Jefferson in the electoral college, but the HoR voted to break the tie. Jefferson won the tie.

  23. John Adams Thomas Jefferson Aaron Burr

  24. This event led Congress to realize that they needed to change the electoral system. • They passed the 12th Amendment which called for electors to cast separate ballots for Pres and VP.

  25. Shortly after losing the election, Aaron Burr read comments made about him by Alexander Hamilton, his longtime political enemy.Burr, hoping for publicity, challenged Hamilton to a duel.Usually, after a challenge was made differences were reconciled, but Hamilton and Burr did not resolve their differences and decided to duel.

  26. Burr vs. Hamilton • The most famous duel in American history, the Burr-Hamilton duel arose from a long-standing political and personal rivalry that had developed between both men over a course of years. Tensions reached a bursting point with Hamilton's journalistic defamation of Burr's character during the 1804 New York gubernatorial race in which Burr was a candidate. Fought at a time when the practice of dueling was being outlawed in the northern United States, the duel had immense political ramifications. Burr, who survived the duel, would be indicted for murder in both New York and New Jersey (though these charges were either later dismissed or resulted in acquittal), and the harsh criticism and animosity directed towards him would bring about an end to his political career and force him into a self-imposed exile. Further, Hamilton's untimely death would fatally weaken the fledgling remnants of the Federalists which, following with the death of George Washington (1732-1799) five years earlier, was left without a strong leader.

  27. President Jefferson believed that the gov’t, especially the Presidency should be accessible to the people. • He even walked to his inauguration instead of riding in a carriage and oftentimes received visitors in his robes, slippers, and not wearing a powdered wig!!!!!!

  28. Jefferson tried to shrink the nat’l gov’t and cut costs wherever possible. • He drastically reduced the size of the military, cut costs for gov’t social functions, and eliminated all internal taxes. • Jefferson was the 1st President to take up residence in the new capitol of D.C. • He and the next 2 Presidents (Madison & Monroe) would also be from the South (Virginia).

  29. As Fed became less influential in both the exec. and leg. branches, they became more powerful in the jud. branch. • John Marshall, a strong Fed decided on many cases that would greatly strengthen the powers of the Supreme Court. • In the Judiciary Act of 1801 the # of federal courts was increased. • In the case of Marbury v. Madison (1803) the SC was given the power of judicial review, to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional.

  30. John Marshall

  31. In 1800, Napoleon Bonaparte convinced Spain to give France the Louisiana territory, which it had received in 1762. • In 1803 Napoleon offered to sell the entire Louisiana territory to the U.S. • The land was sold for $15 million. • With the Louisiana Purchase the size of the U.S. doubled in size!

  32. After the purchase, Jefferson appointed Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the Louisiana territories. • The expedition was called the Corps of Discovery and would explore from St. Louis to the Pacific coast. • The expedition would take 2 yrs and the Corps gained scientific knowledge about unknown plants, animals, and Indian tribes.

  33. Captain Meriwether Lewis "Lewis' First Glimpse of the Rockies"by Olaf Seltzer Captain William Clark

  34. Lewis and Clark's Outbound Route Shown in Red, Inbound in Blue Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark and 31 other persons comprised the “Permanent Party” of the 1804-1806 Lewis and Clark Expedition. Although many individuals were associated with the military cadre during its 1803-1804 initial stages of travel from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to Fort Mandan, North Dakota, only those 33 members who journeyed from Fort Mandan to Fort Clatsop, Oregon, and returned comprised the Permanent Party. In addition, there was a 34th member – Seaman, Captain Lewis’ “dogg of the Newfoundland breed.”

  35. Sacagawea, with the infant Jean Baptiste, was the only woman to accompany the 33 members of the permanent party to the Pacific Ocean and back. Baptiste, who Captain Clark affectionately named “Pomp” or “Pompy” for his “little dancing boy” frolicking, rode with Sacagawea in the boats and on her back when they traveled on horseback. Her activities as a member of the Corps included digging for roots, collecting edible plants and picking berries; all of these were used as food and sometimes, as medicine. On May 14, 1805, the boat Sacagawea was riding in was hit by a high wind and nearly capsized. She recovered many important papers and supplies that would otherwise have been lost, and her calmness under duress earned the compliments of the captains. Sacagawea Statue (Bismarck, ND)

  36. Discoveries:

  37. SECTION 4-The War of 1812 • Despite the agreements that the U.S., France, and England had come to, both France and England continued seizing American ships and “impressing” their crews into the navy. • Jefferson put an embargo on foreign trade with the 2 countries.

  38. Meanwhile, Gen. William Henry Harrison convinced several Indian chiefs to give up 3 million acres of land to the U.S. gov’t. Several chiefs, including Tecumseh, believed they should form a confederation to protect Indian lands. Tecumseh also began negotiating with the British for assistance and encouraging support from Indian tribes in the Midwest. Tribes began attacking American troops and they were defeated.

  39. Tecumseh William Henry Harrison

  40. Several young, Southern Congressmen known as war hawks demanded war against England. • In 1808 James Madison became the Pres and decided to go to war in 1812. • The first couple of years did not go well for the Americans. • By 1814 the British had reached D.C. and burned down the White House.

  41. At the same time, Gen. Andrew Jackson was gaining huge victories over Indian tribes located in the South. • Ironically, Jackson’s greatest victory occurred after the war was over at the Battle of New Orleans. • Unknown to Jackson, diplomats from England and the U.S. met and signed the Treaty of Ghent and declared armistice.

  42. Battle of New Orleans

  43. The Treaty of Ghent did not grant any official land gains to the US, but is did keep the Mississippi River and the frontier open, encouraging western migration. • It also showed that the US could defend itself against foreign powers. • Perhaps most importantly, the War of 1812 helped produce a stronger sense of national identity among US citizens. • People felt a great amount of pride after standing up to the mighty British—again! • Another benefit was the boom in American-made products.

  44. An artist's rendering of the battle at Fort McHenry, where Francis Scott Key was inspired to write "The Star-Spangled Banner.”

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