Chapter 10: Intelligence
What is Intelligence? Intelligence (in all cultures) is the ability to: 1.learn from experience 2. solve problems 3. use our knowledge to adapt to new situations. In research studies, intelligence is whatever the intelligence test measures. This tends to be “school smarts.”
Intelligence: Ability or Abilities? Is intelligence a single ability that manifests itself in multiple ways? Some people have more of it and those people are better at what they decide to do. - If so all tests of ability for a single person should correlate positively with each other. - Some people seem to be good at everything, others struggle with every thing. - In School: Many students seem to stay close to their average regardless of the subject (Are you usually a B student? a C student?) OR
Intelligence: Ability or Abilities? Are there multiple intelligences that are independent of one another, such that people who are artistically gifted may not be verbally gifted? - A person may have a gift for music or art but struggle with math or history. - Savant Syndrome (We’ll come back to this momentarily) - If so, does everyone necessarily have to have a strength?
Intelligence Theories: General Intelligence Charles Spearman proposed that general intelligence (g)is linked to many clusters that can be analyzed by factor analysis (empirically assessed). • Supported by Specific abilities (s) • Math, reading, writing, etc. For example, people who do well on vocabulary examinations do well on paragraph comprehension examinations, a cluster that helps define verbal intelligence. Other factors include a spatial ability factor, or a reasoning ability factor. Athleticism, like intelligence, is many things!
Savants • People with savant syndrome excel in abilities unrelated to general intelligence or have limited mental capacity. • 4 or 5 are males • Rainman
Contemporary Intelligence Theories:Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner (1983, 1999) supports the idea that intelligence comes in multiple forms. Gardner notes that brain damage may diminish one type of ability but not others. Gardner proposes eight types of intelligences and speculates about a ninth one — existential intelligence. Existential intelligence isthe ability to think about the question of life, death and existence.
Robert Sternberg • Sternberg (1985, 1999, 2003) also agrees with Gardner, but suggests three intelligences rather than eight. Triarchic Theory: Analytical Intelligence: Intelligence that is assessed by intelligence tests; success in school Creative Intelligence: Intelligence that makes us adapt to novel situations, generating novel ideas. Practical Intelligence: Intelligence that is required for everyday tasks (e.g. street smarts).
Raymond Cattell • Crystallized Intelligence - ability to absorb, retain, and access information • Playing School • Fluid Intelligence - ability to solve problems one has not seen before and encode short term memories quickly • Speed and flexibility in problem solving
Intelligence and Creativity Creativity: is the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable. Creative people tend to be divergent thinkers. Convergent thinking - thinking that involves following a series of logical steps with the goal of arriving at the “correct” answer. Divergent thinking – thinking used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions; spontaneous, unorganized thought. Creative people generate new, unexpected ideas first through divergent thought. Ideas are then organized using convergent thought.
Intelligence and Creativity • It correlates somewhat with intelligence. • a high IQ alone does not guarantee creativity. • personality traits that promote divergent thinking are more important. • Sternberg identified five components of divergent thinkers and creativity…
Imaginative Thinking: The ability to see things in novel ways. Expertise: A well-developed knowledge base. Creative Environment: A creative and supportive environment allows creativity to bloom. creativity Venturesome Personality: A personality that seeks new experiences with perseverance. Intrinsic Motivation: A motivation to be creative from within.
Emotional Intelligence Social intelligence is the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions (Salovey and others, 2005). The test of emotional intelligence measures overall emotional intelligence and its four components.
Emotional Intelligence: Criticism Gardner and others criticize the idea of emotional intelligence and question whether we stretch this idea of intelligence too far when we apply it to our emotions.
Assessing Intelligence Psychologists define intelligence testing as a method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with others using numerical scores.
Alfred Binet Alfred Binet and his colleague Théodore Simon practiced a more modern form of intelligence testing by developing questions that would predict children’s future progress in the Paris school system. Why he did it: To identify students who needed special help in coping with the school curriculum.
Lewis Terman In the US, Lewis Terman adapted Binet’s test for American school children and named the test the Stanford-Binet Test. The following is the formula of Intelligence Quotient (IQ), introduced by William Stern: Problem with different mental ages as people got older: Standard Average Score Self fulfilling prophecy- teachers expectations for a student influences that student’s self image and performance
Lewis Terman Why he did it: Terman believed in eugenics Eugenics: a social movement aimed at improving the human species through selective breeding…promoted higher reproduction rates of people with ‘superior’ traits, and aimed to reduce reproduction rates of people with ‘inferior’ traits. Self fulfilling prophecy- teachers expectations for a student influences that student’s self image and performance
David Wechsler Wechsler developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and later the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC),and the Weschsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) *Addressed language and age * Most widely used IQ tests today
WAIS WAIS measures overall intelligence and 11 other aspects related to intelligence that are designed to assess clinical and educational problems. • Separates scores for verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, and processing speed
Myers-Briggs Inventory • Personality Inventory • “Forced Choice” Test • Asked to choose which of three statements is most representative of your thoughts, feelings or behaviors in many given situations • 4 letter results • Unreliable results
Modern Tests • Achievement Tests - assess what a person has learned; reflects • AP Test • Aptitude Tests - designed to predict a person’s future performance • Aptitude- capacity to learn; SAT Achievement tests assess current performance and aptitude tests predict future performance and can be “paper and pencil” or “performance based”
Modern Tests • Group Tests - given to many people at once • Individual Tests - given in a one-on-one setting • Speed Tests - timed consisting of more item than a typical person can answer • Relies on Fluid Intelligence • Power Tests - items become increasing difficult as the test goes on • Upper limit
Principles of Test Construction For a psychological test to be acceptable it must fulfill the following three criteria: Standardization Reliability Validity
Standardization Given in the same manner, at the same time, with the same instructions, etc. Norms - Standardizing a test involves administering the test to a representative sample of future test takers in order to establish a basis for meaningful comparison.
Normal Curve Standardized tests establish a normal distribution of scores on a tested population in a bell-shaped pattern called the normal curve.
(James )Flynn Effect In the past 60 years, intelligence scores have risen steadily by an average of 27 points while the SAT score has dropped. This phenomenon is known as the Flynn effect.
Reliability A test is reliable when it yields consistent results. To establish reliability researchers establish different procedures: Split-half Reliability: Dividing the test into two equal halves and assessing how consistent the scores are. Test-Retest Reliability:Using the same test on two occasions to measure consistency. Equivalent Form Reliability: does the score correlate with the score you received on another test of the same material Inter-rater Reliability: one graders score correlates with another graders score; Intra-rater Reliability: same grader gives the same score twice
Validity Reliability of a test does not ensure validity. Validity of a test refers to what the test is supposed to measure or predict. • Content Validity: Refers to the extent a test measures the material; a particular behavior or trait • Face Validity: does the test seem to evaluate what it claims to evaluate • Construct Validity: does the assessment evaluate the operational definition • Criterion Validity: do results from the assessment correlate with other similar assessments • Predictive Validity: Refers to the function of a test in predicting a particular behavior or trait. • Predictive power diminishes as students get older; narrower the range • SAT less than +.5
Extremes of Intelligence A valid intelligence test divides two groups of people into two extremes: the mentally retarded (IQ 70) and individuals with high intelligence (IQ 135). These two groups are significantly different.
High Intelligence Contrary to popular belief, people with high intelligence test scores tend to be healthy, well adjusted, and unusually successful academically. May appear to be more isolated, introverted, or appear in their own worlds
Mental Retardation Mentally retarded (intellectual disability) individuals required constant supervision a few decades ago, but with a supportive family environment and special or mainstreamed education they can now care for themselves. Down Syndrome
Genetic Influences Identical Twin Studies- similar test scores Similar gray matter- neural cell bodies Polygenetic – many genes appear to be involved
Environmental Influences Studies of twins and adopted children also show the following: Fraternal twins raised together tend to show similarity in intelligence scores. Identical twins raised apart show slightly less similarity in their intelligence scores.
Adoption Studies Adopted children show a marginal correlation in verbal ability to their adopted parents. Genetic influences- not environmental ones- become more apparent as we accumulate life experiences
Heritability The variation in intelligence test scores attributable to genetics. We credit heredity with 50% of the variation (difference between individuals) in intelligence. It pertains only to why people differ from one another, not to the individual. Our genes shape the experiences that shape us.
Early Intervention Effects Early neglect from caregivers leads children to develop a lack of personal control over the environment, and it impoverishes their intelligence. J. McVicker Hunt found Romanian orphans with minimal human interaction were delayed in their development. He implemented tutored human enrichment.
Schooling Effects Schooling is an experience that pays dividends, which is reflected in intelligence scores. Increased schooling correlates with higher intelligence scores. To increase readiness for schoolwork, projects like Head Start facilitate leaning.
Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores Why do groups differ in intelligence? How can we make sense of these differences?
Gender Similarities and Differences There are several ways in which males and females differ in various abilities.
Ethnic Similarities and Differences To discuss this issue we begin with two disturbing but agreed upon facts: Racial groups differ in their average intelligence scores. High-scoring people (and groups) are more likely to attain high levels of education and income.
Racial (Group) Differences If we look at racial differences, white Americans score higher in average intelligence than black Americans (Avery and others, 1994). European New Zealanders score higher than native New Zealanders (Braden, 1994). Hispanic Americans
Environmental Effects Differences in intelligence among these groups are largely environmental, as if one environment is more fertile in developing these abilities than the other. We are the same under our skin!
Reasons Why Environment Affects Intelligence Races are remarkably alike genetically. Race is a social category; stereotypical? Asian students outperform North American students on math achievement and aptitude tests. Today’s better prepared populations would outperform populations of the 1930s on intelligence tests. White and black infants tend to score equally well on tests predicting future intelligence. Different ethnic groups have experienced periods of remarkable achievement in different eras.
The Question of Bias Aptitude tests are necessarily biased in the sense that they are sensitive to performance differences caused by cultural differences. A valid aptitude test will detect inequalities. However, aptitude tests are not biased in the sense that they accurately predict performance of one group over the other.
Test-Takers’ Expectations A stereotype threat is a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype; which will cause them to perform poorly on the test This phenomenon appears in some instances in intelligence testing among African-Americans and among women of all colors.