Growth in the West • A transcontinental railroad is discussed, connecting east & west coasts. • Railroad would encourage people to move west; boost economies out there. • Congress hires two companies to complete railroad. • Union Pacific left Omaha & headed west. • Central Pacific left Sacramento & headed east. • U.S. Gov’t promised extra money to whichever company reached Promontory Point, Utah first.
Growth in the West • Immigrant workers are used by railroad companies to build tracks ASAP. • Most immigrants were limited in work choices due to discrimination. • Both companies meet in Promontory Point in May 1869. • Union Pacific reached Utah first.
Growth in the West • With completion of transcontinental railroad, trade between west & east coast of U.S. increases. • Standard time is also created; U.S. split into 4 different time zones; helpful in making train scheduling easier. • 10 yrs. after 1849 Gold Rush, prospectors still headed west (using trains) in search of gold or silver.
Growth in the West • Once an area was believed to have a seam of gold or silver in it, town populations exploded. • One town went from a population of 3,000 to 30,000 in 10 yrs. • “Boomtowns” as they were nicknamed were quickly built to house growing population. • Boomtowns were also quickly abandoned once gold was gone.
Growth in the West • Boomtowns initially started off without laws or law enforcement. • In absence of law, vigilante groups were formed to keep the peace. • Vigilante groups would catch suspected criminals and punish them without trial. • Punishments included: • Hang from nearest tree after being drug through town. • Shooting them on the spot.
Growth in the West • Once town was settled, local sheriff's were elected and laws were put in place by townspeople.
Homework #1 • What two companies were hired to build the transcontinental railroad? • Where did the transcontinental railroad meet? • What did the U.S. gov’t promise the company that finished their part of the railroad first? • What increased as a result of the completion of the transcontinental railroad? • What were created to keep the peace in boomtowns?
Don’t Drink the WaterBy: Dave Matthews Band Come out, come out No use in hiding. Come now, come now, Can you not see? There’s no place here, What were you expecting? Not room for both, just room for me. So you will lay your arms down. Yes, I will call this home. I live with my justice I live with my greedy need. I live with no mercy I live with my frenzied feeding I live with my hatred I live with my jealousy I live with the notion That I don’t need anyone but me. Don’t drink the water Don’t drink the water There’s blood in the water. Here’s the hitch, Your horse is leaving. Don’t miss your boat, It’s leaving now. And as you go I will spread my wings. Yes I will call this home. I have no time to justify to you Fool you’re blind, move aside for me. All I can say to you my new neighbor, Is you must move on or I will bury you. Away, away, You have been banished. Your land is gone And given me. And here I will spread my wings. Yes I will call this home What’s this you say You feel a right to remain Then stay and I will bury you. What’s that you say Your father’s spirit still lives in this place I will silence you. Now I will rest my feet by this fire Those hands once warmed here, I have retired them. I can breathe my own air, I can sleep more soundly Upon these poor souls. I’ll build heaven and call it home. ‘Cause you’re all dead now.
Trail of Tears • Amid all the expansion of the country, U.S. gov’t began to break promises to Native Americans. • In 1830’s, U.S. gov’t forced Native American tribes in Southeast to move into middle of U.S. (Great Plains). • Land was seen as too dry for farming. • By 1850’s, Great Plains were viewed as potential farm land. • U.S. gov’t pressured into moving Native Americans…again.
Trail of Tears • In order to protect new Native American borders, treaty is signed between tribes & U.S. gov’t. • Many tribes signed the treaty; saw no other option. • Colorado militia open fire on peaceful Cheyenne village killing 200 men, women, & children. • Called Sand Creek Massacre. • Massacre sparks Native American violence towards settlers & soldiers in Great Plains.
Trail of Tears • To appease tribes, a 2nd treaty is signed (1868) protecting lands in Black Hills, S.D. for Native Americans. • Gold is discovered in Black Hills in 1874; prospectors flood lands; tribes begin to attack prospectors. • U.S. gov’t forced to use military action to end violence; Native Americans once again forced to move.
Trail of Tears • Sioux tribe met in Wounded Knee, S.D. for religious meeting; militia mistook it for act of war & attacked. • 200+ Sioux men, women, & children slaughtered. • Known as Wounded Knee Massacre • Most Native American tribes (what remained) are forced to reservations in Oklahoma. • As expansion west for gold & opportunity continued, Native Americans are forced from centuries-old homeland.
Frontier Closes • In order to help settle the west, U.S. gov’t passes Homestead Act. • Act provided: • 160 acres of free land to anyone • Had to agree to live and improve the land for 5 years. • Railroad companies were also given land in hopes of stimulating railroad expansion. • Between Homestead Act and railroads expanding, the “Wild West” had been closed.
Industrialization • Throughout the Industrial Revolution, two words begin to become commonplace: • Millionaire • Monopoly • Monopolies occur when one company gains control of an industry by eliminating competition.
Industrialization • With railroads expanding, Cornelius Vanderbilt sought to become country’s first railroad baron. • Vanderbilt consolidated* his railroad line with others to build his railroad empire. • * - to combine many companies into one. • After he was finished, Vanderbilt’s railroads stretched from New York to the Great Lakes.
Industrialization • As the railroads expanded and the nation seemed to “grow smaller”, other industries began to flourish. • Henry Bessemer created a process that made making steel cheaper and easier to use. • Railroad companies begin using steel exclusively, making both industries grow.
Industrialization • Andrew Carnegie, a Pennsylvania railroad manager, leaves his job to open a steel mill. • Opened his mill just as steel industry “boomed”. • Carnegie names his mill “J. Edgar Thompson Steel Works”. • Thompson was president of his biggest customer. • To cheapen costs, Carnegies buys iron plants, coal mines, railroads, train cars. • Can now make steel cheaper by owning all aspects of industry.
Industrialization • In 1901, Carnegie sells off his steel corporation for $480 million to John Pierpont Morgan. • Morgan consolidates Carnegies company and others to create U.S. Steel (first billion dollar corp.)
Homework #2 • What happened at the Sandy Creek Massacre? • What discovery forced Native Americans to move from Black Hills, South Dakota? • What act was passed that gave anyone 160 acres of free land if they stayed for 5 years? • What is a monopoly? • Who was the first “railroad baron”? • Why did Andrew Carnegie name his steel mill after his biggest customer? • What billion dollar corporation was created after Carnegie sold his steel mill?
Industrialization • As nation “shrinks”, communication also advances due to Samuel Morse and Alexander Graham Bell. • Samuel Morse creates Morse code using the telegraph. • Morse code is a series of dots & dashes to communicate through telegram. • While Morse code made it easier to communicate, Alexander Graham Bell took it a step further.
Industrialization • In 1876, Bell finally perfected his invention of the telephone after years of failed attempts. • Invention happened by accident: • Bell spilled battery acid on himself in his lab. • His assistant, Thomas Watson, was in another room. • Spoke “Mr. Watson come here. I want you”. • Watson immediately came in to help.
Industrialization • Within 4 years of the invention, over 50,000 phones were sold to the public. • Because of the phone industry, switchboards are created giving women job opportunities.
Industrialization sewing machine camera • Other inventors of the era included: • Isaac Singer – • George Eastman – • Christopher Latham Sholes – typewriter • Jan E. Matzeliger – shoemaking machine • Elisha Otis – elevator brake • James Ritty – cash register • John Thurman – vacuum cleaner
Industrialization • 3 other inventors of the era changed the world forever with their inventions: • Orville & Wilbur Wright • Henry Ford • Thomas Edison • The Wright Bros. accomplished the first engine-powered flight at Kitty Hawk, N.C. in 1903. • Had studied flights of birds for inspiration of how to make a plane fly.
Industrialization • Henry Ford wanted to create an inexpensive car that families could afford; he creates the Model T car. • In order to speed up production, Ford creates the assembly line. • Eventually were making Model T’s in 5 minutes. • Model T allowed people to explore the country more easily. • Population begins to relocate due to ease of transportation.
Industrialization • The greatest inventor of the era, however, was Thomas Edison. • In his lifetime, he patented over 1,000 inventions/ideas. • Some of Edison’s inventions include: • Phonograph (record player) • Motion picture projector • Storage battery
Industrialization • Edison’s greatest invention, however, was the usage of electricity. • Light bulbs had already been invented by other inventors but were unstable and too bright. • Edison perfected a safe, stable light bulb for home use. • With the era of innovation underway, the U.S. takes a leap forward in the world’s leading countries.
Homework #3 • How did people communicate using telegraphs? • Who invented the camera? Vacuum cleaner? • Why did the telephone change communications? • Besides, the Model T, what did Henry Ford create that changed the automotive industry? • What discovery did the Wright Bros. find? • How did the industrial revolution affect America?
Corporations • As the U.S. moved forward through invention, America also sees more of another invention: corporations. • Corporations are businesses owned by a group of shareholders*. • * - people who buy shares of stock in the company. • U.S. Steel was the first corporation created, but not the only one in the U.S.
Corporations • Another industry begins to take off in the U.S. thanks to the discovery of a natural resource: oil. • John Rockefeller builds an oil empire based out of Ohio; called Standard Oil Company (1863). • In order to eliminate competition, Rockefeller: • Buys out other refineries • Gives rebates to railroads who ships his oil cheaper • Sells his oil at low prices; puts others out of business
Corporations • To completely control the oil industry, Standard Oil became a trust*. • * - Legal body created to hold stock in other companies. • By 1880, Rockefeller controlled 95% of the oil in the U.S. • Rockefeller (nicknamed Robber Baron) had created an oil monopoly.
Corporations • With more financial power in the hands of only a few men, U.S. public becomes uneasy about monopolies. • By 1900, 1/3 of U.S. industry owned by 1% of population. • Big business debate: • Pros: • Business was centralized. • Cut down competition. • Created economic stability. • Cons: • No competition = No price-control. • Quality of goods could diminish. • Overall lack of jobs.
Corporations • U.S. gov’t gets involved after hearing complaints of public. • In 1890, Sherman Anti-Trust Act is passed; goal was to promote competition & eliminate monopolies. • Sherman Act fails to define what a monopoly is; ZERO monopolies are broken up.
Corporations • As the nation continued to industrialize, wealth followed for many investors. • American rags-to-riches stories were rare, but captured world’s imaginations. • Those who controlled industries came from families of privilege • Men like Rockefeller & Carnegie came from families that were: • Upper class • College-educated • Well connected.
Corporations • As the fewer people gained more money, poverty in the U.S. skyrocketed. • Poverty affected: • Middle-lower class families • Minorities/Immigrants • Agricultural families. • Mark Twain & Charles Warner nickname Industrial Era as the “Gilded Age*”. • * - To gild is to coat in gold; can hide object’s lesser value
Urbanization • As population & immigration grow, cities become more crowded in 1890’s. • To accommodate the increase in population, skyscrapers begin to dominate skyline in major cities. • Provided more housing/workspace for more people. • Electricity made it possible to work/live inside buildings but also changed transportation. • Electric street cars began moving people throughout cities; era of public transportation began.
Immigration • The “dream” of a new life with a good-paying job helped lure people to the U.S. • Most immigrants during 1890’s traveled to the U.S. from Europe (Poland, Russia, Italy). • Most came from Ireland, England, Germany before 1890. • As immigrants arrived in the U.S., they were taken to Ellis Island.
Immigration • As immigrants arrived at Ellis Island, they were: • Given physicals (if too sick, sent back home) • Asked to give name, occupation, financial status. • Most immigrants were allowed to stay in U.S.; tried to find work in cities through people from old country. • Most immigrants took classes on becoming citizens: • Took English classes • Took classes on American gov’t.
Immigration • As more immigrants poured into the country, some native-born Americans grow more prejudiced. • Native-born Americans feared: • New immigrants would ruin democracy • New immigrants because of religious views • Having to compete with immigrants for jobs • Immigrants often took whatever jobs available; typically worked in sweatshops for $10 a week.
Homework #4 • What is a corporation? • What industry did John D. Rockefeller create a monopoly in? • Why did the Sherman Anti-Trust Act stop ZERO monopolies? • Why was Industrial Revolution nicknamed the “Gilded Age”? • Where were immigrants taken to as they arrived in the U.S.? • Where did most immigrants end up working after arriving in U.S.? How much did they earn per week?
Problems of Urbanization • Due to overcrowding, low class people began living in tenements*. • Overcrowded & run-down housing. • To save costs, tenements were built cheaply & close together. • Tenements often went without: • Running water • Regular garbage pickup • Underground sewage
Problems of Urbanization • Multiple tenements in the same area of a city was called a slum. • People living in slums were constantly threatened by: • Diseases • Natural disasters • Once Americans found out about living conditions in slums, reforms were begun.
Problems of Urbanization • To help those living in slums, settlement houses were created. • Settlements houses offered: • Daycare • Education • Health care • Jane Addams created the Hull House in Chicago, the first settlement house in U.S. • Served as model for others to follow.
Problems of Urbanization • Political machines* also were another issue of growing cities. • * - illegal gangs that influenced votes to control local gov’t. • Political machines would operate by: • Trading favors for votes • Break election rules to win seats • Demanded bribes • Used blackmail to affect gov’t actions.
Problems of Urbanization • Despite illegal actions, political machines helped build: • Roads • Schools • Sewers • Orphanages • Political machines also helped immigrants find jobs & housing.
Discrimination • Immigrants weren’t the only group of people to face prejudice and racism. • Following Civil War, southern states passed series of laws aimed at stopping blacks from voting. • They included: • Literacy tests • Poll Taxes • Grandfather Clause • 3/5 Clause
Discrimination • Throughout the south, blacks were also constant targets of lynch mobs. • In 15 year span, 1,500 blacks were lynched in south. • “Jim Crow” laws were created to enforce segregation* throughout the U.S. • * - separation of races in public places.
Discrimination • In 1892, Homer Plessy sued a railroad company over segregated seating. • Plessy argued it was a violation of his 14th Amendment right (Equal protection under the law). • Supreme Court hears case titled Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896. • Court rules that “separate but equal” facilities didn’t violate the 14th Amendment.
Discrimination • After ruling, Jim Crow laws are now legal and enforced throughout the U.S. • Under Jim Crow laws, blacks were forced to use separate: • Restrooms • Drinking fountains • Trolley seats • Restaurants • Laundromats • Schools